Antibiotics are classed as broad spectrum and narrow spectrum. What is the difference between these two classes of antibiotics?
Why is it important that the medication such as antibiotics are given regularly and on time, and that the course is completed?
Patients on certain antibiotics such as Vancomycin or Gentamicin require regular blood tests. What is the reason for this?
Immune-compromised patients are unable to resist organisms for many reasons. List 3 conditions that reduce an individual's immunity.
What protective measures are required for an individual with reduced immunity?
Pharmacokinetics Pharmacokinetics is the study of the drug concentration during absorption, distribution and excretion of a drug in a patient. Absorption – Distribution – Metabolism – Excretion
List the different routes of administration.
Using the list above identify the body systems involved in the absorption and distribution of the route of administration will determine the dose prescribed. Use the BNF to identify 4 different routes of administration of Salbutamol and explain why the dose differs for each route.
What significant process following absorption can reduce the availability of an oral drug? What transports a drug in the circulating blood to the desired target cells?
This section will examine the following types of cardiac drug - anti-hypertensive drugs and statins. A group of drugs that can reduce blood pressure are loop diuretics e.g. Furosemide.
Briefly explain how this diuretic can alleviate hypertension.
Other main anti-hypertensives include: - Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists (Beta blockers), - Calcium antagonists, - Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Select one agent and explain how it can control blood pressure and identify any special precautions/contraindications or major side effects.
Statins are widely used to prevent and reduce coronary events. Briefly describe the role of statins in reducing coronary events.
What factors need to be considered prior to the usage of statin therapies?
Neurotransmitters and Hormones
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that communicate information throughout the brain and body.
There are two kinds of neurotransmitters - inhibitory and excitatory. List two examples from each group and explain the effect of an inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter on the target site.
Hormones are chemicals that communicate information throughout the body which has a regulatory function via the blood stream.
List examples of hormones and the target sites that regulate blood glucose levels and bone density.
Skeletal and smooth muscle involved respiratory function.
List the 3 muscle groups involved in normal respiration that are under voluntary control.
Which structures comprise of involuntary muscle groups in the respiratory system?
Which endogenous or exogenous factors influence the constriction and dilation of the airways?
On exertion the normal respiratory muscles are supported by the recruitment of accessory muscles. List examples of muscles that perform this role.