A vital tool that determines an organization’s or a country’s success is the leadership. A leader in an organization has to manage the smooth running of an organization through meeting up all needs of various departments. Management plays a main role in shaping and steering an organization. Leadership in an organization is a key aspect, because skills involved have a strong effect when combined with the leadership influence in workers. In addition to this, the stability of leadership in public organization results in better outcomes but a higher rate of succession leads to poor performance. The leader’s plan of action should include a way to harmonize growth trends of workers from different cultures and races, a way of modernizing the organization’s equipment to cater for changes in technology, a way of meeting the desire for research in the managerial system, and how to meet effective leadership in the democracy.
As a leader, one must be able to employ organizational culture, since it recognizes personality as an individual moderator, a variable that is necessary in the relationship between managers and interpretations of organizations’ context, and perceived requirements and roles. In studying leadership, one will realize that the more a leader (an administrator) interprets a culture in terms of transactions, the more likely the leader will understand transactional leadership role requirements and this helps the leader to interpret transformation in leadership as a role relation requirement. Organizational culture is defined as a division of labor, as well as a pattern of coordination, communication, workflow and formal power that helps in directing an organizational activity (Shivers-Blackwell, 2006). Leadership helps in developing a strong organizational culture that is essential for successful function. The leader should employ strategies that link organizational culture and effectiveness in an organization. Structures employed always drive individual behaviors in an organization, and thereby becoming effective.
A leader must have different skills for managing workers to produce a better output. One must be involved in motivation, which is a process that accounts for the individual’s intensity, persistence and direction of effort towards attaining a goal. It is any factor that will result in an increase in normal contribution into doing something, having knowledge and hoping that a reward would be gained afterwards (Nelson, 1999). Process theory takes motivation be a rational cognitive process that occurs within an individual, while content theory takes motivation in terms of needed satisfaction. Despite differences in explanation, theories recognize motivation and its features, which must be met by the leader to achieve maximum output of workers.
According to the motivation theory, which a leader must employ, everybody would seek to satisfy the common interest. This brings in the idea of universality, where people are not as different as they appear to be. In the content theory of motivation, leaders are able to comprehend psychological foundations that govern behaviors of those whom they seek to lead. For example there are behaviors which dominate needs of individuals, and they include achievement, affiliation and power. The theory, therefore, explains that in most cases, people experience combined needs, but certain people demonstrate marked preferences for particular needs above others (Pieter, Drenth & De Wolff, 2001).
On the other hand, process theory of motivation is a cognitive process that concentrates on behavioral and psychological processes that motivate a person. It entails how a leader works with employees together to accomplish goals. For example, it is a common practice that most employers tend to have the unconscious practice to focus on the content, rather than process. It is an excellent idea to focus on content, because it is what they are employed to do. However, they have the unconscious trendto forget the process they are using for hiring people (Shivers-Blackwell, 2006). They should note that the quality of process used in hiring i.e. any type of meeting made to discuss a final decision, has a significant influence on the quality of the resultant content.
People often work, because there is something obtained out of work. What is obtained from work has an impact on personal motivation, morale and the quality of life that an employee lives (Robert, 2004). Therefore, when creating a positive employee motivation, employees should be treated, as if they matter. The idea of treating employees, as if they matter, will help an employer fulfill what he wants from work. The employer’s expectation of his employees, as well as employees’ own expectations is the key factor of how well people do their work. This is known as the Pygmalion Effect and the Galatea Effect, which involves the idea that the power of expectations cannot be overestimated (Robert, 2004). To enhance the business success, apply motivation, and with it comes performance expectations and performance improvement.
Content theory of motivation focuses on internal factors, and it helps direct human behavior, and that is why according to Thelma, she has to drop out as an employee of a banking institution. The work was not providing for her internal factors, because it could deny her most things that she liked most. The promotion would make her stay away from her husband who could not work in a small city. It was the promotion she had longed for, but since it was against her internal factors, she had to quit. She had used the right process of working hard, and waiting for a good opportunity for promotion, but when it comes, it entirely becomes opposite to her expectations. Her specific goals were, therefore, reached according to content theory of motivation, but when it came, it was against her internal factors.
As a good leader, one must direct one’s attention to issues arising in an organization with an inborn ability. One should be able to harmonize different relationships that exist in the organization. This is according to the great man theory, which assumes that the leadership is inherent. Through observation in technological developments, the leader has to meet organization’s requirements, so as to avoid the shortage. This behavior is explained in behavioral theory, where a leader has to be a participant in all activities. The leader should be involved in motivational aspects, and just like what participative theory explains, the leader must engage in activities of the organization, including sales. In the face of changes, as a leader, one must find time for constructive planning to avoid managerial crisis. This will lead to a situation, where an understanding of espoused values will be lost, and danger comes when the manager’s choice is guided by measures of expedience emanating from the desire to survive crises.
The most compelling aspect of leadership is an understanding and managing the organization’s culture. A manager must have an organization structure which is a planned system that consists of arrangement of work that carries roles, relationships, responsibilities, authorities and communications of individuals in the same department. The structure employed shows that the company’s leadership is high, because it has a hierarchy divided into levels, and mostly four levels, and each level has well delineated responsibilities (Stamatis, 2001). They should employ mechanical structure that is characterized by a high level of formalization and centralization. The leader must employ a vertical communication, rather than horizontal, and tasks are well defined, but altered when approved by the hierarchy at the highest level. Managers should be able to acknowledge mistakes, co-optation, meet super-ordinate goals, participate in the decision-making, turn threats into opportunities, reward, recognize and appreciate, anticipating episodes and outcomes.
The culture of the organization should involve a formal structure which has got activities, such as coordination, supervision and task allocation which are directed towards achieving organization’s goals. This acts as a viewing glass through which the organization would see through to see the nature of their environment. Many business organizations consist of hierarchical structures, and the structure depends on business objectives (Nelson, 1999). This structure will also help in determining modes in which employees operate and perform. Well-managed structures allow for express allocation of responsibilities for different business processes and functions, such as departments, branches individuals and working groups. Organization structures affect business organization in two ways; first, it provides a solid foundation, where standardized operation processes and schedule lie (Boyne, 2000). Secondly, it determines the type of individual, who will participate in decision-making processes, and it also determines the extent at which different employee’s views shape organization.
They should also employ organic structures which are likely to be effective in environments that are unpredictable, because structures allow for rapid growth of organizational responses to changing forces. On the other hand, mechanistic structures are better in a stable environment, where there is no requirement for an immediate organizational response. It is, therefore, expected that organic structure is more efficient in an organization operating in irregular and even hostile environments (Shivers-Blackwell, 2006).
Since change always meets resistance and brings about stress to employees or workers, leaders should employ strategies of managing change, and at the same time, achieving the maximum output out of changes brought about. Leaders should involve employees in their management strategies. Employees should involve in organization teams, and should be empowered to make decisions about their work. This act of employee involvement is a team building strategy, which will increase employees’ loyalty and empowerment, which will in the end foster ownership. In the current business organizations, effective team work and team building are popular topics in any organization, since successful team work fuels the accomplishment of an organization’s strategic goals. In any organization, effective teams help in magnification of individual’s accomplishment, and as a result, it will enable employees to better serve customers.
A leader in an organization has to manage the smooth running of an organization through meeting up all needs of various departments. Management plays a key role in shaping and steering an organization. A successful business is achieved when implementation of organizational strategies is affected. Execution of such strategies tends to be dependent on effective management of human resources. Managers should use their position power to enhance mission, direction and vision. Position should not be used to strike fear in hearts and minds of workers and all employees should be treated equally, because every employee is equal in an organization. There is a need for an effective communication in the work place for an organization to be successful. When management is able to communicate clearly to employees, employees will exactly know what is required of them; this will consequently make them perform their work correspondingly. On the contrary, when a manager aggressively manages employees, they will get more and more frustrated and unable to know what their true faults are. Therefore, a quality style of management that will demonstrate a positive approach to communication will ensure that employees understand what is required of them, and as a result, correct output will be achieved by them. A leader’s plan of action should involve a way to harmonize growth trends of the nation, including those from different cultures and races.
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