In this case study the Maslow’s Theory will be used. The theory was founded by Abraham Maslow in 1940-1950s, and represents a Hierarchy of Needs. It can still be applicable even today for comprehending human driving force, improving employees and training of management. In fact, the ideas of Maslow is about the Hierarchy of Needs about the duty of managers to offer a conducive working environment that ease and encourage workers to reveal their own distinctive potential that is self-actualization. The hierarchy of requirements by Maslow is often depicted as a pyramid having the leading, essential stages of requirements at the foot and the need for Self-Actualization at the zenith. The essential and central five levels of the pyramid of Maslow hierarchy include the following deficiency requirements: esteem, companionship and love, safety and physical requirements, If the deficiency requirements are not achieved with the exception of the essential that is Physiological requirements there may be not a physical sign, but the employee will feel nervous and anxious (Frey & Jegen, 2001). The theory of Maslow proposes that the essential stage of requirements should be achieved before the person will strongly wish the secondary requirements. The theory also pointed out the term Meta-Motivation to explain motivation to people who are beyond primary requirements and struggle for stable betterment.
Motivation is a term derived from a Latin term movere, meaning to move. Motivation is defined as ways, interior or exterior to the person, which stimulate eagerness and perseverance to pursue a particular course of act. Once one stage is met, the next stage will emerge as the demoralized need seeking to be met. Physiological and safety needs are limited but the requirements of superior levels are infinite and are probable to be leading in people at superior stages in the company (Issac, Zerbe & Pitt, 2001).
Stage one: physical requirements, these are the primary requirements such as food, clothes shelters and other essential requirements in life. This entails providing enough time breaks for lunch, offer wages, which enable employees to buy essential products for life. The Maslow’s theory indicates that if these requirements are not met then people’s motivation will occur from the pursuit to meet them. Higher requirements, for example, social requirements and esteem are not felt until person has satisfied primary requirements to bodily functioning of a person.
The second stage comprises safety requirements, which include economic security, security from physical dangers such as security, and freedom from fear. This involves providing a workplace environment, which is harmless, relative work safety and liberty from threats to all employees in the organization. According to Theory of Human Motivation, if a person feels that she/he is impairment’s path higher requirements may not receive much attention.
Social/ Belonging Requirements
Stage three: social requirements. This stage entails generating a feeling of acceptance, such as need for love, affection, emotional needs, and belonging by reinforcing team dynamics. The Maslow’s theory indicated that once an individual has achieved the lower stage physiological and security requirements, higher stage motivators become awakened. Social requirements are those connected with communication. Persons who are in need to satisfy their social requirements prefer to work in an organization based on interactions and social support methods. The two crucial sources of social support for workers are managers and colleagues.
The Maslow’s Theory of Needs
The fourth stage is esteem requirements, i.e. recognizing achievements, assign vital projects and give rank to make workforce feel appreciated and esteemed. This includes recognition, and ego. Some research indicated that lack of appreciation from direct manager is one of the crucial reasons why workers leave their positions in the company. Employee recognition and appreciation are essential motivators across every stage within the organization, and these help workers to realize that their good work in the organization is appreciated.
Stage five is self-actualization which is offering challenging and achievable work assignments that help novelty, inventiveness and improvement according to long-term goals of the organization. Thus, this level in the hierarchy is used to motive workers and help them execute at their top levels (Cascio et al., 2008). One of the main means in which organizations can aid their workers start to meet this need is to offer tuition-compensation programs and support enrolment in colleges and course connected to their work duties. Education support programs aid workers keep up pace with the changing working environment and give valuable chances for individual and professional expansion and improvement. Additionally, workers will provide organization with new skills and add value to the organization (Palmer et al., 2000).
The relationship between HRM and Maslow’s theory is that, motivated workers are valuable assets to any organization. If the workers are encouraged they will definitely work extremely hard, hence better their performance and increase profits of the company. In general, the obligation for encouraging employees lies within the Human Resource Management. HRM is designed to aid organizations best achieve the requirements of their workers where promoting organization objectives. HRM deals with all factors of an organization which affects workers such as paying employees, administration, training, hiring and firing. HRM is also countable for work motivation, security process information and vacation days. HRM is the hands-on management of persons. It calls for thinking ahead plus planning means for an organization to better achieve the requirements of its workers, and for the workers to better achieve the requirements of the organization (Patterson et al, 2003). Organizations which try hard to achieve the requirements of their workers can promote working environment favourable to outputs, and HRM is the perfect means to attain this. An organization which is able to plan for the requirements of workers through thinking ahead, may assist to advance the rate of skilful workers who decide to work for the organization. Advancing the workers retention rate may decrease the fund organization spend on getting and training new workers.
Contemporary HR managers may employ this theory when attempting to motivate employees. They need to be aware of different requirements for different workers who are in different levels of expansion, therefore, various strategies are needed to be used. For instance, some employees may be at belonging level, therefore, team building weekend may work very well for them, while others might be at esteem stage where they can be motivated by response to recognition of their accomplishments (Czebter, 2002).
Human Resources Managers encounter challenges related to the HR functions such as Human Resource policies, legislation regarding today employee requirements, and technology issues. HR managers facing these challenges use Maslow’s theory to avert matters, which might occur from these challenges.
Challenges of multi-generations in places of work, for example, having four generations within the labour force, are also among the important HRM issues. Ranging from septuagenarians to twenties, the organization can experience challenges caused by having various sets of standards, requirements, styles of working and expectations in the places of work. According to AARP (2005), more than sixty percent of HR managers are experiencing intergenerational challenges in their organization. Nevertheless, these differences can result to increasing inventiveness and outputs and eventually lead to success of organization. Every generation has its qualities to contribute to the workers; older employees of the purist age band are a goldmine. They have a number of years of experience and capability, thus HR managers can draw upon to train their new workers join the organization (Aswathappa, 2005). By applying the Maslow’s theory the organization is able to meet the employees’ requirements for each generation.
The legislation that has effects on workers in the working places: the Recovery Act of 2009 and Health-Care restructuring bill that was passed in the month of March year 2010, assured instant impact on the places of work. The needs of the Recovery Act had a huge effect on organization, which gives health-care insurance to employees who lose their jobs. There are crucial management implications to improve place of work motivation. Employee motivation is achieved by motivating all workforces through their management style, recompense plans, and responsibility, definition and management of activities (Sparrow, 2006). Thus, these are suggestions employed by to motivate workers using the hierarchy of Maslow’s Need.
The success or failure of the organization depends on how HR managers perform their roles in the organization. If the manager carries his/her functions effectively, as mentioned in Maslow’s hierarchy, the organization will definitely succeeded but if he/she does not perform them properly, - a failure of the organization will be the definite result. For instance, recruitment of workforce, is one of the essential functions of HR managers. This function ensures that the organization has the right employees with rights skills. It involves assessment of capability and know-how of potential workers in relation to the needs of the organization (Hyde, 2004). HR managers raise compensation of the workers, which gives them morale to do their duties effectively, thus, increasing productivity in the organization. On the other hand, if the HR managers fail in recruiting the right employees, and appointing the right compensation for them, it may demoralize the latter , as they will be unable to perform their duties effectively, hence, leading to failure of the organization.
In conclusion, HR managers are responsible for using main management functions , which means controlling, planning, directing and organizing every activity connected to employment of personnel. For a company to attain its goals, sound HRM practices are fundamental, thus the future HR managers have to employ aspects of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs while motivating employees. HR manager functions comprise both positive and negative aspects. Positive aspects of HR department is that it enhances the company by recruiting processes. HR managers ensure that all workers use the general way by reminding and explaining them the goals of the company (Sparrow, 2004). Moreover, they are accountable for organizing recompense packages to encourage workers, whose input contributes to effectiveness of the organization. Negative features of HR functions are that it has to deal with the weight of blames if a worker performs badly, for example, in the Arthur Andersen Company. Moreover, some rules created by the department may be unfavourable to the company, such as in the case of Depot Company. Enhancement to their function can be achieved by providing training to the workers, changing organizational culture and coordinating activities for the company (Erica, 2006).