Homosexuality is a cross-cultural orientation within which certain practices have within gay community perpetuated the spread of HIV. As such, the practices involve unprotected anal sex and in the larger perspective the heterosexuals who engage in anal sexual are at a high risk of the virus. Culture in particular, play a great role on how this sexual orientation is perceived by different communities. Basically, in Pakistan and the sub-Saharan Africa some practices of homosexuals can be described to have been attributed to the spread of HIV. In essence, the sexual practices applied by gay communities are influenced by culture, within Pakistan and much of Sub-Saharan Africa. HIV/AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease that has plagued the sexual health across all the cultures (Umeh, 1997). The research question I will investigate is whether the sexual practices that gay men practice such as anal sex has contributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan and Sub-Saharan Africa?
In Pakistan, the spread of HIV has been on the increase of which it has been attributed to a lack of condom usage among men who have sex with men. In fact, it is illegal and punishable by law to carry a condom among the Pakistani (Rajabali et al., 2008). In this sense, there has been an increased number of those affected by HIV as there is no access to safe sex practices. Again in this context, it is against the religion and taboos along with beliefs of the Islam to practice homosexual practice (Rajabali et al., 2008). Research has pointed out that this has driven homosexual community underground hindering them from being educated regarding safer sexual practices.
Following this point, men who commit sex with other men in Sub-Saharan Africa have been associated with high HIV risks as it is presumed that anal sex is safer in this region. Although this group is at a high risk of contacting the disease, political, religious and social shames have continually humiliated homosexuals and thus it makes them to hide in their behaviors (Smith et al., 2009). Remarkably, there has been violence, stigmatization, harassment by authorities and humiliation altogether of which it has made homosexuals to go underground in fear of the repercussions. This has as a result perpetuated HIV/ AIDS prevalence as it is impossible to reach these people through messages about HIV as well as the prevention of the same through safe sexual practices (Smith et al., 2009). This is what makes it necessary to research on this topic in order to promote ways of reaching the homosexuals and thus help them to prevent HIV/ AIDS from spreading among them. This research question has a lot of significance in that it will help the many homosexuals at the risk of contacting HIV to receive the necessary education and subsequently adapt to safer sexual practices (Glass & Stolley, 2009).
In order to accomplish this task or research, several methods will be utilized. As such, sources of information such as books, journals and newspapers will be utilized to give the background information on the perception of homosexuals’ sexual practices in both Pakistan and Sub- Saharan Africa community. In the same line of thought, prevalence of HIV/AIDS will be explored among these communities making the use of interviews with some of the few exposed homosexuals and other people in these communities regarding their view of HIV spread and the practices of homosexuals.
Some of the questions that will be addressed will be whether the involved know the risk of practicing unprotected anal sex. If yes, then, do they have access to safe sexual practices? Do they have knowledge of them? If they have got no access or knowledge of them, what are the reasons for the inaccessibility? Do they know about HIV as a risk in this practice? Are they aware that it is risky to engage in unsafe sexual practices? The number of participants required will be at least ten homosexuals for each region but from different locations in the region. Among them the affected will be interviewed to establish whether they ever used safe sexual practices or not. Were they aware of the safe sexual practices? This will then be evaluated and analyzed using quantitative methods and qualitative methods where required. The expected results of the research will be that sexual practices that gay men practice such as unprotected anal sex, has contributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS in the regions in context.
The time scheduled for the research is two months. In the first one week, background information will be examined based on information from academic sources such as books, journals, websites and any other credible academic sources with such information. Second week will take in the designing of the interview questions along with issuing of them to the Sub-Saharan African participants and on the other hand to the Pakistan gay community making up the three weeks. The last week will take in quantitative analysis of the data as well as making of the necessary conclusions from the results of the analysis.