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Introduction

In the U.S workforce, motivation is seen as a problem. The workers who are poorly motivated always express themselves through the detrimental behaviors such as high turnover and absenteeism behaviors. It is extremely beneficial for the motivational theories to understand and then apply in the workplace. The attitudes and the actions of a group or groups or an individual toward another organization as one, the whole effect in an organization is functional and also performing. According to the paper, motivation is a vital component in groups or individual organizations (Pinder, 2008). It assists in building the groups and ensures that the members are actively participating in achieving the main goal.

Motivation

Motivation is defined as the processes that direct, arouse, and also maintain human behavior to attaining a certain goal. It is also described as the mental state of a person that relates to initiation, persistence, direction, intensity, and the termination of behavior (Pinder, 2008). Furthermore, it is the activity where managers induce others so as to produce results which were desired by an organization.  In general, motivation is defined as the processes accounting for individual intensity, persistence and direction of the efforts towards reaching a goal, specifically for the organization behavior, toward attaining organizational goal. The essential motivational theories on the Organization behavior are;

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The Maslow’s theory on the Hierarchy of needs

In this theory, Abraham Maslow suggested that five levels of human needs will lower level of needs and then motivate longer only the unsatisfied needs motivate members.

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Physiological: the lower order need, comprises thirst, hunger, shelter, and sex and other bodily needs. The lower orders are always satisfied externally through the forces outside a person.

Safety: This lower order need comprises protection and security from the physical and emotional harm.

Social: The upper order need, comprises affection, acceptance, belongingness, and friendship. The upper order requirements are satisfied internally that is from a person.

Esteem: Upper order need comprises of internal (autonomy, self-respect, and achievement) and the external (recognition, status, and attention) esteem factors.

Self-actualization: Upper order need, described as a drive to “be all that one can be” this includes the growth, achieving someone’s potential, and the self-fulfillment.

Traditional Theory X by Freud Sigmund

The theory X is usually attributed to Freud Sigmund he asserted that, the people who are innately lazy who naturally run away from responsibility or initiative. Most of The people work for they are searching for security and may become motivated if a reward is there or when the punishment is on sight. According to the theory, the managers constantly need to be watching over their employees so as to motivate them.

Theory Y

In addition to that, Douglas McGregor, a professor of management at Massachusetts technology surmises that people have natural learning desire. Working also allows people in challenging themselves and also develops further as human beings. Thus, the managers are supposed to work and integrate the needs of the company with employee’s love of responsibility and learning.

Hygiene/Motivation Theory

According to Herzberg Frederick, the author of the book, “one more time, How Do You Motivate Employees” also believed that people can work and are motivated by the desire for self enlightenment. The group will be the happiest when working is accomplished a certain goal. He also believed that individuals are always motivated by the animal needs salary, interpersonal and supervision relations and the recognition of human needs, responsibility and advancement (Pinder, 2008). With the theory in mind, managers are asked to encourage growth in employees and also give them work which fully utilizes their capabilities.

Social perception of motivation in organization behavior

Social perception or a way an individual views others. It affects the behaviors within the organization. In his book, the management expert Champoux Joseph asserts that, the organizational behavior which social perception individuals are described as target or goals and what is being perceived and stimulus threshold, certain level of the information must also receive so that it can make perceptive assumption on individual, the work process or different target. Further, wrongful socialization perceptions, e.g. the fundamental attribution error arises in one person and mistakes of another person’s characteristics as a cause of a negative event that can eventually lead to organizational behavior problems.

Perceptions Affecting Motivation

The social perception of a worker on the other employees within an organization will effect to his motivation and complete the work efficiently in large degree. Within an organization, motivation remains a high when the worker thinks that the opportunities for personal and development or the professional advancement if he then feels capable of completion of the tasks correctly and involvement with the various organizational goals were setting and decision making process. Motivation may be reduced if the worker is perceived to lack growth opportunity, lack of opportunities or involvement to demonstrate creativity. It holds true volunteer organizations as described in the Miami University leadership material, “Why groups/volunteers member lose interest”.

Changing of Perceptions to Improve Motivation

Worker motivation and output are affected through the change of working conditions which cause the negative organizational behavior. Reduction of work size and the work groups that may allow employees to feeling like he is having greater input in work output. Time provision for the easy interaction on social perception will improve the social intimacy among the coworkers and assist in production of camaraderie that always improves the work interactions. All managers should work harder to control their perceptions of company’s employees; they should withhold their evaluative judgments until when they get enough information about a workplace of an employee’s performance.

Perceived Public Service Efficacy

In 2008, the American Review paper of the Public Administration was an introduction of the concept perceived as a public service effectiveness that describes the way employee’s perception of the work can also affect the motivation at the workplace and organizational behavior. According to the co-authors of Craig Boardman and Eric Sundquist, when the employees perceiving their work benefits general public, reports for both job organization and satisfaction commitment increase. An organization that is concerned with the growth of business and social concerns typically it has a high degree perceived on public service effectiveness.

Decision- making

Decision making is defined as a basic part of the modern management. Essentially, sound or rational decision making is taken as the primary management function. Each and every manager takes many decisions consciously or subconsciously making it the key component in the manager’s role.

There are extremely prominent roles played by decisions to determine both the organizational and the managerial activities. In general, a decision is defined as the course of action that is purposely selected from the set alternatives and achieve the organizational or the managerial goals or objectives (Griffin Moorehead, 2012). The process of making decisions is always indispensable and continuous component of the managing any of the organization or the business activities. Most of the decisions are made to sustain activities of business activities in organizational functioning.

Theories of decision-making in organizational behavior

Behavior decision theory

The theory provides a systematic approach and describes how an individual decision maker beliefs and values are integrated into the decisions they make as well as, prescribing the courses of actions that reflect the close beliefs and values of the making decisions. Explicit the theoretical approach is the way or manner which decision makers are capable of expressing preferences when given an alternative, where the same preference is able to be evaluated systematically considering the subjective and expected utilities.

Probability theory

Most decisions by managers are always related to uncertainty. The managers are required to make appropriate assumptions for the future of the company basing on the situation at hand. For instance, under uncertainty, the decision maker is then forced to take a risk. Speaking statically, probability is attached with the event non-occurrence and occurrence.

Group decision-making

The group decision making is a participatory procedure whereby the multiple individuals acting collectively and analyzing situations or problems, evaluating and considering courses of the action, and selecting from among alternatives or solutions. Some number of people that involved a group on the decision making and vary considerably, and often range from two to seven. Individuals in groups may demographically similar or even quite diverse (Griffin Moorehead, 2012). The groups for decision making might be relatively informal in nature, or it may be formally charged and designated with a specific goal. The process that was used to arrive on the decisions might be structured or unstructured. The composition and nature of the groups, their sizes, structure, demographics makeup, and purpose are all affected by their functioning to some extent. The external contingencies that are faced by the groups (time pressure and the conflicting goals), impacts on the development and the effectiveness of the decision making groups as well.

In most organizations, decisions are usually the consequences that are made after some of the form of group decision making process is always undertaken. However, the groups will not only forming a collective work but also the arrangement. The group decision making should be distinguished from concepts of the teams, teamwork, and the individual managed teams. Even though, the words groups and teams are often used interchangeably, the scholars have increasingly differentiated between the two. The distinction basis seems to be the teams act in more collectively and also achieve greater synergy of the efforts

Teamwork effectiveness

Teamwork is a significant factor of every organization. The importance of teamwork seems to be gaining popularity as jobs become more complex. Today, many companies tend to be multi-national in scope. In a contemporary environment, a team upholds the key to business success. Successful organizations use teams as a basic unit. However, are ubiquitous in companies, most workers related functions are often individualized. Such a disconnection between a company’s needs to enhance effective teams and its natural likelihood to emphasize on the individual worker can create numerous problems. According to research, teams fail when employees are unable to transit from individualism to an active team member. Organizations should create a more conducive environment to help enhance teamwork at workplaces. They should assess both internal and external factors that affect teamwork effectiveness. High performance teams are developed and nurtured by visionary leaders and motivated team members. Additionally, facilitators with extensive expertise are needed in team structuring as well as its effectiveness (Guzzo & Salas, 1995).

Leaders should encourage healthy conflict resolutions among the team leaders. Moreover, effective employers are cheerleaders for their respective teams; they should support members to actively participate in teamwork while encouraging the dormant members to actively participate.  Effective teams require much support and guidance from their team leaders (Guzzo, & Salas, 1995). In an attempt to clearly understand how teams operate, Michael Lombardo and Rombertt Eichinger came up with the T7 Model in 1995 to outline the key facets that affect the performance of work teams. Based on literature review, they identified five aspects inside the team and two aspects outside the team that influences team effectiveness. Each one aspect was named beginning with letter T, Namely, Thrust, task skills, trust, talent, teaming skills and team leader. The two external aspects are team-Leader Fit and Team Support from the company. Each of this aspect can be divided into sub factors, for instance, thrust are agreed vision, values, goals and mission among team members. Furthermore, team participants employ a common strategy and procedures to accomplish goals.

On the hand, trust comprises of truthful communication among the team leaders, trust in actions as well as trust in the team. Task skills include assignment flexibility, focusing and measurements. Teaming skills that enhance teamwork effectiveness involves good decision making abilities, proper conflict resolution tactics, and appropriate resource management among the organization. All seven factors are essential for high performance in a team. However, teams need the required organizational and leadership support to enhance their effectiveness.  From the concept, communication is an essential factor in every team. As a leader, I will intent to ensure effective communication upon my team members. Through the model, I have vastly improved in terms of assignment flexibility, thus exploring new skills and abilities that I have never known before. The T7 Model has helped me to become a better leader with regard to decision making and conflict resolution. Also, I intent to apply the model in my future jobs to ensure proper resource management.

The GRPI Model by Rubin, Plovnick and Fry is highly applied by many organizations across the globe. This model outlines the goals, roles, interpersonal relationships as well as processes needed in teamwork effectiveness. This model IS presented by a pyramid, ranking the processes in a hierarchal flow of necessity. Goals are ranked at the highest level, followed by roles, processes and finally interpersonal relationship. Katzenbach and Smith Model assert that there are various capabilities of teams that are often affected by natural resistance aspects. They inhibit one from attaining their individual roles, responsibilities and accountabilities. The model enables the team members to accept, apply as well as understand the basics of teamwork effectiveness. As an individual, I believe that commitment, skills and accountability as proposed by the model are key factors in successful teamwork. Every team has its obstacles to conquer; therefore, members in these teams should be committed in overcoming the challenges (Salas et.al, 2009).

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