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Introduction

Description of the Crisis

The September 11th, 2001 attack on the World Trade Centre is an attack that has led to global reactions. It was on 11th September, 2001 when the world Trade Centre was attacked. The means through which it occurred was discovered to have been a work of terrorists. Investigations have put forward that the Al-Qaeda terrorists accomplished this by hijacking four commercial passenger jet airlines. Two of them, crashed the airlines into the tallest building which was the World Trade Centre in the New York City by then. As a result, the passengers on board died and the people who were in the buildings. The buildings collapsed and the nearby buildings were destroyed as a consequence. In the unveiling of events, the third airline crashed in the Pentagon in Arlington a place that is situated outside Washington D.C (Gard, 2003). In connection to this, the fourth airline was crashed in the Shanks Ville in Pennsylvania as some passengers attempted to retake the control of the flight.

In spite of the efforts made, there was not even a single survivor of the planes. The number of those that were victimized was about 2,973 along with the 19 hijackers. The casualties of this attack had the largest percentage as civilians were many and those who happened to be from different nationalities given an estimation of ninety different countries. This was a great drawback to the American society economically, socially, emotionally and physically. The effect was not only felt by the American society but by the world in the larger perspective. Many individuals acquired injuries that have made them to be permanently disabled, others loss of life and others have acquired the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder which becomes so hard to deal with (Williams, 2003).

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Economically, there has been a big blow brought about by this crisis as offices and documents so important were destroyed in the collapsing of the World Trade Centre along with very high costs required to rebuild the World Trade centre together with the other buildings that were destroyed (Kingsbury 2003). Office space amounting to billions was lost as a result. So to speak, the medical costs incurred along with the costs of rescuing the victims are so high that the economy had been affected. The 9/11 Attacks were unexpected and so sudden, a situation that can have a great traumatizing effect. The effect and impact of this attack was quiet overwhelming in the sense that many people lost their beloved, their lives and many children were left with one parent and others orphaned. The children who were left in this situation are approximated to be over 3000 children. Rescue and recovery from the debris of the collapsed building was so costly that the economy was greatly affected.

In association to this, billions of US dollars were lost in the medical care costs and the long term effects of the incident. It was reported that some of aftermath effects of the incident was the fact that a large number of workers who were involved in the rescue and recovery process developed respiratory problems that led to death of some. Others developed cancer out of the effects and this is pointed as one of the high cost diseases in America. About 18,000 people were displaced and destroyed in the lower Manhattan. Accordingly, about $1.4 trillion was lost by the New York City Stock Exchange (Heinrih, 2003).  Illnesses from the toxic debris proved to be many and expensive. Additionally, many individuals lost jobs and this further made the economy to be greatly affected. Generally, the 9/11 attack is associated with terrorists who finally were discovered to have been the Al-Qaeda group under the leadership of Osama bin Laden .This was accomplished by the group with the sole aim of disarming the United States of its power as a superpower and again by affecting it economically and more specifically its export economy.

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Crisis intervention approach

The 9/11 attacks, intervention approach, best suited for such a trauma would be a multimodal approach incorporating many factors and the psychological First Aid. It is abbreviated as PFA and is defined as evidence informed approach of assisting the people who happen to be in the after effects of the crisis or terrorism in this case. By using this kind of approach, one can be able to enhance immediate and even the ongoing safety making provision of both emotional and physical support to the victims. The approach at the same time can be able to establish a human connection in a compassion manner. In this combination, this kind of intervention provide room to help the survivors of the terror to speak out their immediate needs and concern together with enabling one to gather information that is appropriate (Dattilio & Freeman, 2007). At the same time, a PFA intervention approach offers one with the opportunity to offer practical help to the survivors of the crisis.

In this 9/11 attacks, the practical help to the survivors would be of great essence as this case needed one to get practical help  of provision, medical assistance and basic needs and help. This approach in addition provides for survivors being encouraged by being quickly connected to social support networks to alleviate the effects of the trauma. As such, the victims can connect to their family members, friends, neighbors and the community in the larger perspective. From a broader point of view, the Psychological First Aid intervention approach to crisis makes it possible to protect fatalities from further physical or psychological harm. In line with this, it helps to identify the wounded and provide support to them and in particular the most distressed. Furthermore, it helps to reestablish social supports among others. From this point of view, PFA would work for 9/11 attacks. This is for the reason that it would provide for rescue of the victims together with enabling support and emotional support for the most distressed as it is in the case of a trauma and its effects (Roberts, 2005). 

Ethical, legal, and multicultural issues related to 9/11 attacks

From an ethical point of view, the 9/11 attacks can be described as that which beats the logics of ethics. Having been pointed out as a terrorists attack, it is in actual sense terrorism. Terrorism can be defined as a deliberated use of violence towards civilians in order to attain goals that are political or in other words religious. It can also be ideological in nature or executed by instilling fear in people using certain forms of cruelty. So to speak, the main definition to terrorism cannot well define as it has led to many different views from a global perspective. Terrorism in nature has diverse effects that have led to international reactions in that many have resolved to counter react while others are in support of terror based on the religious point of view. It is therefore from this perspective that the controversy on the issue of terrorism has sprouted.

 Although the ones that carried out the attacks of 9/11 did it with the sole aim of meeting their political as well as religious goals it is not ethical. The immorality of this crisis is brought into view by the mere fact that it killed the majority civilians who were innocent. Life has a great value and taking ones life deliberately is not at any point right. It is evil and unethical even based on the humanitarian laws that make life. Based on the legality or the authenticity of the 9/11 attacks, it is not lawful (Meggle, 2005). This is due to the fact that there is no law that advocates for one to take the lives of civilians or any human being. Therefore, the 9/11attcks had no legal basis for them to be carried out.

 Multicultural issues related to 9/11 attacks involves the fact that there are several cultures that have been brought together in the United States. Having been a multicultural state, this aspect was so much affected as multiculturalism means that freedom of religion is given. Nevertheless, the aspect of multiculturalism was shaken since there was a wider gap now being created between the white residents and the Islamic community in America. The communities other than the whites now started living in fear and as a result, multiculturalism was no longer taken care of.  For this case, the Islamic culture is associated with terrorism since their religion provides room for the so called “holy war” that is done for the purpose of either convert or kills the ones who do not believe in the Islamic religion. This deviates from the multiculturalism standards that puts it that there is no culture or religion that is superior top another. There was a lot of hate that developed towards the Islam religion and a lot of tension was realized. This happened because of the reason that the Islam terrorists engage in such crisis as the one for the 9/11 attacks. According to Muslims, if one offers to die as in the case of the 19 hijackers, they are termed as holy. Following this point, such a culture cannot be accepted in such a state and thus the multiculturalism aspect is quiet shaken (Meggle (2005.

Another reason why the Al-Qaeda terrorists attacked the US was for the reason that they were fighting for their rights to liberty as they claimed that the US was dictating them and taking their rich land as supposed. An additional reason why US were a target was because they have always perceived the American community as a key ally of Israeli who has proved to be detrimental to the Islam community. Their demand was also that the US should withdraw its troops from Saudi Arabia.

Potential impact of the 9/11 attacks

Following what happened in September, 11th, 2001, there are many impending impacts. Some of them can be located in the after effects reactions that developed. This is to mean that the behaviour was extensively affected as many nations in the globe condemned the disaster. As a result, they strengthened their legislative laws governing security. Tension has always been there especially towards the Muslims. The intensification of enemity between US and Muslim community in Afghanistan intensified as they destroyed their residence in their fight against terrorism together with the destruction of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan (Begec, 2007).

Shortly after the attack, the US declared a war against terrorism and as a consequence, Afghanistan was destroyed as it was supposedly to be the hiding place for the Al-Qaeda terrorists. In the beginning, many nations supported the US but thereafter they disapproved it as to be one of the terrorists due to the violent means through which it has engaged its war on terrorism. Potential impacts of 9/11 attacks also comprise of the fact that there has been a continued manufacture of mass destruction weapons in the globe inclusive of the nuclear weapons. The 9/11 attacks have potential effects on the behaviour of those that were affected in the sense that they have developed stress and trauma resulting from the experience. Some have developed a poor attitude towards airlines from the 9/11 crisis.

Others have developed an aggression war in effort to revenge on the 9/11 attack and the war on terrorism has developed a lot manufacturing of dangerous and toxic weapons as many nations are all ensuring that they are armed in case of any attack. Again, racism has been enhanced by the attack and as a result there has been great differences as well as fight between Islam and non Islamic nations. The terrorists in particular, have taken the advantage of the situation at hand by using media as they seek for recognition. This is from the fact that the 9/11 attacks were so much given to the media and that the terrorists would voice out their views through the media (Weiten et al., 2008).

From the development perspective of the American States and the globe at large, there has been a decreasing trend since the impacts of the 9/11 attacks have had great effects on the economy which is a good indication of development. The high medical costs have affected the economy negatively as many people died out of the crisis thus reducing the workforce as well as the rebuilding of the buildings and taking care of those wounded. This has cost the state economically and the funds that would have been otherwise directed to development have been used in the recovery of the great loss caused by the 9/11 crisis. The only area that has so much developed is the technology department which has sought out how to get better weapons to fight terrorism.

Equally, the terrorism war has called for development in telecommunication as it seeks how to locate the terrorists who may be planning for an attack. Globally, there has been a lot of development in the area of technology and security legislation laws as the whole world learnt from the 9/11 attacks that there are terrorists and they should be well prepared as any time anything can occur. Looking at the ecosystem, there has been a great impact. An ecosystem defines the fauna and flora together with the environment as it can be termed in simple terms (Richardson & Gordon, 2007).

For instance, there has been pollution of the ecosystem that has been brought about by the toxic debris that was realized after the 9/11 attacks which resulted from the buildings that collapsed. The debris was a big menace to the environment together with the materials that had made up the buildings. Since there were fires that arose in the event, they caused pollution through the smoke as well as the elements in the building and those that were from the burning planes that were rich in materials rich in  carcinogen. In order to sum up the whole issue of the effects of the 9/11 attack to the ecosystem, it is important to point out that there was a lot of pollution and much unwanted debris from the remains of the collapsed buildings.

Global impact of the 9/11 attacks

The global impacts of the 9/11 attacks range from social, psychological, emotional and economical as well. The social impacts mostly affected the aspect of multiculturism as many non Islamic nations developed a negative attitude towards the Muslims. In the same line of thought, the issue of insecurity and tension was enhanced as people started living in fear and preparedness to counter react in such times when terrorism occurs. Having been not been in exposure in the past, people lived in peace without being afraid but after the 9/11 attacks of the World Trade Centre, terrorism was exposed and international reactions sprouted marked with high levels of development being directed to security (Begeç, 2007).

Psychological effects can be well demonstrated from those that witnessed the event and those that lost their beloved ones. The memory of the crisis has brought about fear throughout the world together with emotional effects when one thinks of the experience and the effects it had. Economical effects were so much pronounced not only after that crisis but even focusing on the future trends of economic growth. This was because of the damage that was caused by the attack on property, the airline industry and the export economy that was destroyed as well as the office space worth of billions of dollars (Richardson & Gordon, 2007). From a broader point of view, the impacts of 9/11 attack were so detrimental affecting the whole sphere as America as seen from the world wide view is a superpower and having been attacked, it meant that the attack shook the whole globe in all aspects of living. 

The crisis intervention strategies and skills possible

The strategies and skills that from a personal point of view would have been applied do not so much differ from the ones used. As earlier on highlighted Psychological First Aid intervention would be applied as it means that the victims would be rescued and recovery done and support offered ranging from practical support to social support reconnecting the victims back to the social networks and their families as well. Later, there would be a sense of interacting with the victims seeking to know their needs, attending to them and then ensuring that help is given mostly to those most distressed. Following in this line would then be the application of declaring war on terrorism through a justified war ethically, legally and without violating the international law by ensuring that informed strategies are well informed through the United Nation permission. Destroying the lodging areas of the terrorists would also be a preferred option in this case (Dattilio & Freeman 2007).

Potential long-term psychological effects

There is a wide range of the many potential long term psychological effects of 9/11 that cannot be underrated. They involve issues like the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder among others that can lead to suicidal attempts by the survivors (Begeç 2007). If a person is psychologically affected, it means that the person is mentally disturbed whenever the memories of that event come into mind. The individual can end up attempting suicide in such like a situation or sometimes may develop wild behaviours that can be noted by the way of emotional instability and uncontrollable agitation. At the same time, the victims may have a long term kind of fear developing that can make them to be so dreadful that they end up living a life that has no peace.

Potential risk and resilience factors

The 9/11 attacks have showed a very detrimental impacts throughout the globe, both short term and long term. However, there are potential risks and resilience factors that if well taken care of they can lead to recovery. Resilience factors are those factors that give one the ability to cope with stress effectively and in a profitable manner. It also involves a health way of dealing with a crisis and it is on of the best ways that can lead to recovery in a crisis like the one for 9/11 attacks. There are always potential risks that can lead to a crisis. For instance, after the 9/11 attacks, the world has been in a potential risk of terrorism.

Subsequently, it has developed resilience factors such as social support, reconnection to families and friends, developing hardiness towards such occurrences and the ability to cope with stress and manage it without developing psychological problems that may translate to stress. In particular, the social support in a case like the one experienced in the 9/11 attacks, was a resilient factor that can have great recovery effects. Regardless of the crisis in 9/11 attacks, there were good outcomes in that, the people were rescued, recovered, provided with social support and they could continue with life normally (Weiten et al., 2008). Additionally, although risks of terrorism are high, resilience factor of constant social competence can lead to recovery. In combination with this, resilience factors leading to recovery can be found in the aspect of one being resistant to stress and the ability to deal with stress.

Trends and/or future research related 9/11 attacks

Following what has been discussed above; several facts have been brought into view. This is to mean that research has been done in relation to the 9/11 attacks and the impacts in the broader perspectives. Research has put forward that the methods and approach used was quiet good as it dealt in the larger perspective with social support. The reason behind this is the fact that not all victims of terrorism have aftermath effects that are psychological. However, the trend of research seems to bring the point that future research should be carried out to establish the best intervention approach to terrorists’ attacks.

Again, research should be conducted in order to establish the best ways of preparedness in case of an attack together with preparedness of respondents, the community and the professionals as well. The state should be technically equipped in case of emergency and unexpected trends of terrorism which are being carried out by means of man made ways and weaponry. Other facts that have been revealed by the previous or the ongoing research is that terrorism is on the increase and means of fighting it should be invented as it seems that the war on terrorism carried on by the Americans is not a just war and it is prerequisite to set up strategies that can be well applied in line with the international laws.

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