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1. Provide a brief explanation of the distinction between formal and informal types of organization

 1. Formal organization comprises of set of rules of an organization procedures and structures. It focuses the position a manager holds in an organization. Power is usually given from the senior management down the organization. For instance, in formal organization, each position has rules on what is supposed to be done.Unlike formal organization, informal organization refers to personal and social relations that gradually develop between individuals working together. Its primary focus is the worker as an individual person .Here; power is obtained once an individual becomes a member of an informal group within an organization. Finally, individuals within an organization conduct themselves according to the required norms of the society (Freedland  2003, p.130).

2. Detail the principal differences between private sector and public sector organizations.

 2. The private sector is comprises of organizations that are owned privately. These include businesses, corporations, other profit and non-profit making organization. Unlike the private sector, the public sector comprises of government agencies and institutions run by the government. The private sector goal is to make a profit in the long run whereas public sector main agenda is to serve the public. They are not profit driven. The end beneficiary of private sector is the owners whereas end beneficiary in the public sector is the public (Freedland 2003, p.170 ).

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3. Provide a detailed and accurate definition of the concept of employment

3. Concept of employment refers to what is required in law for a worker

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to be considered to be an employee. It also specifies the types of workers that are not employees. The basic concept of employment suggests that an employee must provide a valuable service equivalent to the amount of money that they earn. In case employees want to terminate their contracts they have a clear procedure based on the common law rights (Freedland 2003, p.209).

4. Explain the purpose and function of management in an organizational context

4. The management purpose is to serve its customers. The management provides leading function where manager lead other workers to achieve organizational goals. It also has to plans developing organizational missions and objectives and determines how to achieve them. More so, it participates in organizing in that it establishes organizational structure, focuses on coordination and control of tasks within the organization .It also recruit, hire ,train and  evaluate the performance of their staff. Finally, management control the organization by establishing the performance of the firm based on the aims and goals, and measures performance of the organization (Davies & Freedland 1984, p.207 ).

5. “What are the principal categories of environmental forces that can impact on an organization and the way it operates?

5. Demographic factors where people and companies are relocating to other places. This may cause the organization to have limited expertise and employees since they move to other places. More so, the natural factors like the increased cost of energy may cause the organization to increase its expenditure on energy. The technology factors where technology is rapidly changing and an organization has to keep up with the pace so as compete well with others. This may be costly to the organization. The political influence in those regulations enacted by Politian affect the organization growth (Davies & Freedland 1984, p.309).

 6. Explain the notion of homo economicus (‘economic man’).

6. Homo economicus also known as economic man is where a man in some economic theories behaves as a rational person who acquires wealth for his own interest. The economic man is avoids unnecessary work but only obtain acquires wealth for his personal interest.             

7. What do we mean when we consider work to be a moral obligation?

7. Work is considered as a moral obligation because we have to produce before we consume. This way we shall not be considered to be parasites on those who produce what we consume. We all have to participate in producing so as to enjoy the consumption (Davies & Freedland 1984, p.453).

 8. What is a labour market?

8. Labour market is a process that connects employer of individuals with individuals who are available for work. Basically, it deals with labour demand and labour supply. The market operates either   locally or on international levels. The factors affecting it are the changes in external business environment and government interventions (Davies & Freedland 1984, p.507 ).

9. Define the term profession.

9.A profession is a call realized by an individual undergoing special training in education in a particular field of study. The reasons for this are to offer services to others like consultation services and counseling service. One earns a living out of it (Schumpeter A 1942, p.104).

10. What do we mean by the term ‘rational forms of organization?

10.Rational forms of organization refer to a form used to foresee how companies arrange their organization to a compatible one that meets the organizational objectives and goals the company wishes to achieve. There exist four ways of explaining the organizational behavior under the rational model (Schumpeter A 1942, p.234).

11. Explain the concept of leisure time.

11.Leisure time is free time that one can be used for the rest as a result of temporary exemption from your duties. One can choose to anything that will relax his or her mind. Concept of leisure time is the free time in which individuals are able to do activities to refresh themselves and possibly spend money on those activities especially when they are temporally off their work (Schumpeter A 1942, p.607).

12. Provide a plausible explanation as to why a recent study by the Work Foundation indicated that self-employed people tended to be happiest in their work.

12.One has the freedom to the kind of business he or she can venture in like opening a textile industry or even rearing animals. In addition, one can have a chance to earn the much he or she wants .One can enjoy job security since no one can fire t in e owner in case of mismanaging t funds. Finally, one enjoy the freedom running the business the way he or she likes because nobody him or her (Schumpeter A 1942, p.790 ).

13. Explain the term job security

13.It is when the employee is sure and certain that they will maintain their job. Employees with a High degree of job security reduce the employee’s risk of losing their job in the future. The security of job is determined factors such as the current economic situation and the employee’s performance (Schumpeter A 1942, p.800)

14. What do we mean by the term ‘specialization of tasks?

14. It is the dedication in performing a particular job to your level best. One does a job or something exceptionally well as compared to other people in the system.
The jobs are divided and done by different parties that are dedicated to doing individual tasks. In the process, the entire organization has every job done (Williamsons E 1975, p.209).

15. “Explain how control is maintained over processes in a bureaucracy.

  Control is maintained in a bureaucracy. Its main features in practice are chaos and laziness. I just know that there's far less of these things in government today than there are in corporations. .An individual can also borrow more than you can afford, so everyone is too broke to fight you. Threatening anyone who does not abide by your policies. Employing bribe to make sure you bribe all the senators and Member of Parliament to ensure your bureaucracy is big (Williamsons E 1975, p.309).

16. Provide a brief overview of how FW Taylor developed his ideas on scientific management.

16. Taylor had a notion that the industrial management in the time of his life was performing poorly and something was to be done to improve the performance. The best performance could be achieved when a trained and qualified management could be employed. He also thought that cooperation between invention oriented employees could also work. Taylor’s scientific management included the following principles: replace rule-of-thumb job methods, scientific selection, training, and developing of every worker. More so, the provision of instructions and supervision of every employee during field work could also improve the performance of a company. Finally, work was to be divided equally between managers and worker so that management could use the principles to plan, organize and do jobs (Williamsons E 1975, p.378).

17. Explain the principle facets of Taylor’s ideas on scientific management.

17. Taylor thought of forcing standardization of methods, forcing of individuals to follow the new implementation and working conditions. He also suggested that individual should be forced to cooperate for faster job to be assured. All these were to be done by the management alone. The employees were forced to behave as though they did not know what they were doing for them to achieve their organizational goal despite the nasty working environment (Williamson E 1975, p.563 ).

18. Provide a brief outline of how work is organized under the system we now refer to as ‘Fordism’

18. It is a system of job organization basing on the scientific management principles. The principles were used to achieve mass production goods. Mr. Ford built car assembly factory for the purposes of producing cars in large numbers in the twentieth century. Ford’s car assembly factory system featured the following: linear work sequence, tasks depended on each other, a moving assembly line, the use of machinery, and special machine tools. Any work process with these features is called by the term Fordist. More so, Fordism is directed towards mass production, which depends on mass consumption of the products (Williamson E 1985, p.345).

19. Outline the key findings of Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne Experiments that would be of interest to those seeking an understanding of human behavior in the workplace.

19. He disapproved Taylor's beliefs about how productivity can be improved. The experiment suggested that the women had formed one team and the social changes were major determinants of productivity .Furthermore, the women could swap their job methods to avoid getting bored without affecting productivity. The results proved that the group changes and social structure of an organization were paramount forces that could either promote high or low productivity (Williamson E 1985, p.400).

20. Explain the notion of complexity and how it fits into our understanding of skill in the workplace.

20. Complexity refers to difficulty incurred when one tries to learn about something. It generally mirrors the information contained in an object or something else. If information about an object is represented by a code, human beings have to understand the code before they engage in interpreting the code. This notion is useful at workplace since these make workers to understand the complexity of task the assigned before they work on them. Workers solve problems well when they actually understand the cause of the   problem. They will simply counter the cause of the problem. This will eventually improve the productivity of worker at workplace.

21. List the components of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs from the lowest to the highest.

21.1. Physiological needs include vital things for survival
21.2.Security need include needs for safety and security.

21.3. Social need include needs for belonging, love and affection.

21.4. Esteem needs include the need for things that focuses on self-esteem, personal acceptance and worth, identification and accomplishment the society.

21.5. Self-actualizing Needs which is to be aware of yourself or self awareness (Williamson E 1985, p.456)

22. Summarise the key criticisms of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

22. Though Maslow's hierarchy makes sense, less evidence supports its ideal hierarchy.  Recent research disapproves the order in which needs are arranged in the Maslow's pyramid. This is, social needs are more fundamental than others in some cultures. Additionally, less evidence suggests that individuals satisfy one’s need at a time unlike the circumstances where needs are not compatible (Williamson E 1985, p.545 ).

23. What is the key distinction between content and process theories of motivation?

23. The content theory and process theory of motivation are both motivation theories. However they come from different a viewpoint. Content theories talk about specific things that motivate a person at the workplace. It emphasizes on the kind of needs and type of motivation. Unlike content theory, process theories talk about the association among the dynamic factors that comprises motivation (Williamson E 1985, p.578 )

24. Outline the key dynamics of the expectancy theory of motivation.

24. Expectancy theory of motivation states that employee’s motivation is results from the outcome of how much a person desires a reward, the assessment that the possibility that the effort may give the expected performance .Also, one must believe that the performance may win a reward (Porter & Fuller 1986, p.389).

25. Outline what research has indicated to be the consequences for health of an unsatisfying experience of work.

25. This may result to production of poor quality of goods and services by a firm due to inexperience. Moreover, the productivity of affirm will lower due to inexperience exhibited its employees. More so, the task done by an inexperienced worker will be reviewed by an experienced worker. This is time consuming and may lower productivity (Porter & Fuller 1986, p.479).

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