Information technology is whereby telecommunications equipment and computers are used to store, manipulate, retrieve and transmit data. It also covers distribution technologies like television and telephones. IT can be used in business for enhancing customers experience with the company through the use of a well-designed website. The firm can implement management information system into their daily work which enhances efficiency in business. It gives employees the freedom to work at home, or business trips making the company run around the clock. A business profile portrays significant features in a company, and this is usually a set of data. It contains contacts and names of senior people in the company. A business model is a plan usually implemented by a firm on generating revenue and profit making operations. A series of activities that are logically related which include sales, planning and production are done in order to deliver defined results is called business process.
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A mission statement drives the agenda that the business does. It is of much importance and so the business needs to consider it as an internal anchor for what they do in business. Way out can have this mission statement: to be the most preferred customer-centric business that offers expertise and value for money.
System request is the starting point for projects. It is a way of requesting for IT support. It proposes correction of problems, replacing old systems, enhancing existing system that are needed in support of the business future and current needs. Reasons for system requests are more information: when information is incomplete or doesn’t support the business need for information. When managers need the information to make decisions regarding planning and marketing new products; moreover, system used in tracking orders for customers, can’t predict and analyze market trends. Better performance: when the system in use doesn’t measure to performance requirement. For example, slow response to data inquiries at given times. Competitors: information system analysis and decision are driven by competition. Example of marketing research and development do need IT support. The economy: company information management is influenced by economic activity. Need for scalable systems to handle growth and volume in economic expansion is important.
The system phases are: systems planning: this is a system request that gives a description of problems in the information system. It evaluates any IT related problem that entails a feasibility study to review benefits, costs and recommend action to be taken. Systems analysis: builds a new system and a logical model that requires documentation of a new system that satisfy users. Requirements modeling proceeded with investigations that started at systems planning stage. The outcome is the system requirements document which outlines costs, benefits, both user and management requirements. Systems design: creates physical model in order to satisfy the system’s documented requirements. User interface is designed, both internal and external controls, outputs, inputs, manual features for the computer for a guarantee of system reliability, accuracy, security and maintenance are all identified. The outcome is the system design specification. Systems implementation: here a functional and documented information system is to be delivered. It involves construction of a new system where analysts look at the software and do necessary modifications if the system was bought as a package. It involves converting data to files, user training. Systems support and security: at this stage, there is a lot of maintenance, enhancement and protection of the system by the IT staff. There is a need to ensure the system is secure, scalable, reliable and maintainable in meeting the business volumes and requirements.
How, where, when, who what, and why, fact finding questions that acquires certain facts relevant to the issue, and target acquiring of these facts. Evaluative questions that identify opinion or a point of view and diagnostic or comparative questions which aim is to gather information that helps in comparison of two things in order to make a decision.
In reference to Gane and Sarson, the four symbols are used in creating data floe diagram. These are sources of destination shown by shaded square that defines systems boundaries each representing company, person or other system that gets and transmits data to the system. Process or transformation i.e. the round cornered rectangle identifies activities that move, transform or changes data. The data store that is the open ended horizontal triangle represents data held for logical reasons in between processes. The data flow that is the arrow represents motion. Thick arrows are used to depict physical or material flow.
If an IT person is dealing with users who are trying to learn the system, then he should let them do things themselves and only be available to present data when asked to. Like Microsoft Office or a company’s specific business software used in completion of regular tasks. This all is in regard to users and activities that they want to accomplish. However, if the system is developed for one-off user experience, set up wizard or an installer application then there is the need to avail the user with information frequently.
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