Table of Contents
This essay is very critical in analyzing the elements of the human anatomy as it intends to discuss more about the tumor suppressor blocks. To ensure that the reader of this essay does not have difficulties while trying to comprehend the content herein, it is crucial for the writer of this essay to give a brief introduction as well as the background of the topic in question. A tumor suppressor gene blocks or rather inhibits the divisions of cells (Yoshida et al., 2000).
This can easily be put to mean that it is important in preventing the cellular growth in the body. It is worth noting that incase that this gene is inherited by a child from the parent in liberal state, it can result to cancer causality in the body of the victim. The tumor suppressor gene prevents cells from advancing to the stage of cancer which results from the growth of the cells. Subject matter to other causes, in case that the tumor suppressor blocks is not in good condition, the cell can evolve to cancer.
Suppressors of tumors do function in many ways such as repairing of both cells DNA as well as transcript regulation. It is the failure of these cells in providing the named functionality that result in abnormal behavior of cells. To ensure the reader of the essay gets to understand how the tumor block functions, the following example will assist in this; tumor suppressor blocks can be looked at as the brakes of a motorcycle. Every replica of the of each tumor suppressor block do put in the power to the cell just like the brakes apply the stopping power to the motor cycle (Yoshida et al., 2000). Therefore, when the replicas of the tumor suppressor block are working well and are in a good condition, the division of the cells can be prevented or rather stopped. The same case applies when the brakes of a motor cycle are applied; the motor cycle stops.
Another important thing to mention at this juncture is that, a cell contains two copies of tumor suppressor gene. This becomes significant in case one of the tumor suppressive block becomes defective, it leave the other copy functioning (Yoshida et al., 2000). This helps to prevent further cell division but in case the second copy also becomes defective, the ability to prevent further division of cell is automatically lost.
Tumor Suppressor p53
Having been discovered in 1979, the p53 gene has proved to be amongst the most critical genes as far as cancer is concerned. It is found in chromosome 17 and acts as a transcription factor due to the protein product it produces. This protein is very important, since just like all the other tumor suppressors, it servers to prevent uncontrolled growth of cells (Soussi, 2000). p53 protein is very important element as far as growth of regulated cell is concerned due to the fact that, it interacts with both DNA as well as other proteins which are directly involved in activities related to cellular. It does have the capability of triggering the death incase a damage to the DNA is detected.
Tumor Suppressor p21
p21 which is popular in as far as suppressing of the tumors is concerned, is being unregulated strongly in CD4 cells and have been identified in reducing proteins and therefore increasing the number of the cells. This shows that, there may be common mechanisms of immune defense shared between HIV and cancer. Previous research has proved that high levels of the p21 tumor suppressor protein which is critical in blocking the cellular catalyst needed for viral multiplication is also effective in HIV as it reduces HIV multiplication in other resistant cells (Massachusetts General Hospital, 2011). A study carried out primarily to establish the content of protein in CD4 T cells, established that or rather according to the study, p21 levels as well as its related mRNA were identified to be between 11 and 19 times higher in CD4 cells from the controllers of the HIV.
By knocking the proteins out, this raised the replication of viral in CD4 cells from controllers of HIV. Again, the p21 has been found to have at least two impacts in the lifecycle of HIV, one is that it is involved in blocking the reverse transcription as well as blocking the production in as far as creation of the new molecules of viral RNA is concerned. The p21 has been also proved to have the capacity of autonomously blocking more than one events and therefore facilitating inhibition by p21 of producing new viruses.
It is therefore clear that according to these studies high levels of p21's proteins which is popularly known to fight cancer may turn out to very useful in controlling the HIV infections using the immune alone of the individuals. This is because the study also shows that, CD4 count cells which are from controllers of HIV, though they can be infected, they do have the capacity to inhibit the activity of viral lifecycle. This capability can only be related to that one of the p21 protein.