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Free «China the Emerging Superpower» Essay Sample

The aim of this paper is to analyze China’s military and economic growth, under the authority of Communist regime. In this work, there is a description why the emerging superpower of China has threatened the United States and Western civilizations. Firstly, this study investigates the economic increase of China in the world. Secondly, this paper demonstrates the crucial changes in the Chinese military strategy, emerging of nuclear power policy, political and soft power, capture of mass median world space and outer space. The importance of this paper is determined by a solution of the issue of struggle between China, the United States and the Western World for gaining authority. This situation can be amplified by the fact that in the 24th of October China has headed for new plants of full scale nuclear build. According to a new plant, 15 reactors are going to be built. Moreover, China poses a strong threat to the United Sates and the West, since this country is the largest country with military forces, developed economy and innovative technological means. Finally, the way to solve this problem is to apply balance-power theory that will help to reorganize the power of geopolitical leaders, such as the United States, the West and China and keep peace in the world.

Without any doubt, the history of China is both interesting and complicated. Its culture includes mixed sights: on one hand, it is peaceful; on the other hand, it is full of wars between warlords for gaining power. The Chinese policy of the last century was characterized by the advent of the Chinese Communism Party to power. This happened in the 1931st in China's Manchurian region when Japanese troops occupied the territory of China when Communist Party of the “People’s Republic of China” (PRP) was ruled by Mao Zedong. This was a period of absolute isolation of China and decline of democratic values. In 1976 Mao Zedung was dead and a new leader Deng Xiaping started to inculcate radical changes. He made an abundance of reforms that were sufficient in formation of international relationships, improvement of international trade and foreign capital investments. This power increased the educational system, reorganized the attitude to international trade, and improved the economical system and the living standards..

Undoubtedly, the 21th century in China was determined as the Second Great Age of Global Capitalism. It is needless to say that political and economical systems were experiencing the biggest challenges related to the transformation of their main bodies. This period is characterized by the end of the Cold War, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the enrichment of Japan and Pacific Asia, the reunion of Germany, the reestablishment of the Western World and the enormous growth of China. After the above mentioned changes, the United States was in the stage of joining the unipolar system. According to Miller (2004), “Absolute supremacy of the United States was losing its control when China was rising on the geopolitical map of the world, while Chinese had stable improvements in the economic indicators, policy`s stability, and military and technological fields” (p. 68). This growth has spread the news that there are evident features in which China can threaten the United States and Western World. Furthermore, this exaggeration caused panic and even evolved thinking about the beginning of the next World War (Miller, 2004).

It is needless to say that the Chinese economic reforms offered by Deng Xiaoping in 1972 have transformed the Chinese economic system into fast growing. It was observed that China’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew to 9.3%. Furthermore, from 1978 China annually has got a 10 % profit in foreign countries and in such a way it gained the second place in the world economy. Additionally, due to the fact that China has a big population, big domestic market and cheap labor, this peculiarity of China makes this country very competitive in the world and pit started to produce 76% of world industry, particularly technological devices that are significantly produced at a low price (Miller, 2004).

Secondly, in 1980s Chinese big growth on geopolitical map was marked as modernization of its military army. The Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) was focused on limited war. Moreover, the Gulf War had a big impact on Chinese military power, since after that China started to develop new technological means that would be convenient in modern warfare. According to the modernization changes in the Chinese military power, there were key programs that made it the strongest one in the world. Firstly, new navy and air military equipment was developed with an aim to put Chinese coastal provinces under control. China has modernized its air forces and produced six new models of tactical planes and has bought a Russian model of Su-27 and purchased fife Russian Su-10 and got 15 missile systems of SA-15. According to Dennison, L (1996), “The utilization of nuclear energy in the building of navy vessels has made China the leading military force in the world and spread its power in the South China Sea, the Taiwan Strait and the Pacific” (p.47). In 1997 the National Defense University published a Strategic Assessment: “Dealing with China as a rising power is the most difficult of many issues that the United States can have in future and its regional unions” (Dennison, 1996).

Thirdly, China is the most powerful nuclear power in the world. According to statistics, the United States and Western countries have reduced spending on their defense, while China has increased it to 12%. This country takes a course for gaining the supremacy as the nuclear power controller. Furthermore, China has developed the vehicle MIRV, using Russian SS-18 details and planted to buy 15 systems of the missile DF-1.On October, 24th China proclaimed its main approach to nuclear power and the result for this was signed a new license for new reactors. According to a new plan approved by the President Hu Jintao, the number of reactors is going to increase up to 15 (World Nuclear News, 2012).

It is worth to mention the fact that China is improving its forces in order to gain Taiwan; this may be a future geopolitical conflict between the United States and China. Historically, the Taiwan problem goes back to Chinese Civil War. The main issue consists in involvement of the United States into formation of international status of Taiwan in 1982 when the USA President Carter and the six Assurances signed up the Taiwan Relations Act. China admitted that this act was illegal and dethroned the act of Three Communiques. In 1982 the issue was solved by signing an agreement of recognition of power of the act of Three Communiques between the United States and China, according to this act, China had supremacy on Taiwan. The current tension of the Taiwan issue was taken place in 2004. The hottest discussion was concentrated whether Taiwan gained its identity or not. According to Johnson (2003), “The United States claimed that Taiwan gained fully-democracy, however, China suggested that there was a lot to do in order to unite society of Taiwan. Moreover, China affirmed that according to election in March 2004 Taiwan policy had a lot of weaknesses and could not be independent on geopolitical map” (p. 35).

Additionally, China’s political and soft power significantly positively increased due to the fact that n the 1980s Deng Xiaoping signed a new list of reforms that considerably improved Chinese economy and its prestige in the worldwide arena. However, not everything was so well-coordinated. In 1989 Tiananmen strikers were suppressed brutally. Moreover, the collapse of the Soviet Union influenced development of China. Starting from 1971 China was trying to collaborate with the United States, without disrupting or unseating the American leadership. In the times of the Crisis (1990-1991), China’s PRC signed all resolutions in favor of the United Nations for Iraqi ratification and stressing for its pullout from Kuwait, with the exception of two resolutions that concerned military power. In the process of voting, China did not ban these resolutions. Consequently, this situation led to the Bush Administration. The similarity can be observed in 2003, when China, Germany, France, and Russia were opposed to the USA and UK resolutions. In 2003 the heads of two influential countries: Russia and China, Vladimir Putin and Jiang Zemin were trying to proclaim the sanctity of the ABM treaty that was signed in 1986. The White House did not allow the proclamation. After the US’s refusal, China and Russia criticized the United States for its fear and distrust in possible collaboration between China and Russia. However, Chinese soft power is suffering from its total control by the Chinese Communist Party. and Washington and Western countries have criticized China for its brutal suppression of Tiananmen strikers. Moreover, the United States has found a fault with collaboration between China and Russia, however, many scientists perceive this criticism as a strategic plan for a consolidation of China and Russia against American forces.

It is needless to say that China is capturing the USA’s mass median space. According to the BBC report, Huawei and ZTE telecommunications pose an evident threat to the USA. After the last presidential campaigns of President Obama and his political opponent Mitt Romney, there was a distinct resolution proclaimed by two American candidates for a reduction of Chinese firms in the USA’s market. According to BBC News (2012), a month earlier President Obama claimed, “We forbid Ralls Corp, a Chinese firm, to have a wind farm constructed near the naval force in Oregon” (p. 1).

Undoubtedly, China is working on project of creating its own space station. The creation of orbital module “Tiangong 1” is the first step of Chine towards developing its own space station. Moreover, the Chinese scientists are currently working on establishing a space laboratory. By 2020 China plans to send an astronaut to the Moon. According to the report by Christy R., the author of the article Tiangong 1 Parked And Waiting As Shenzhou 10 Mission Prep Continues pointed out on different expansion of Chinese exploration of the Moon, “The flight to the Moon can include male and female astronauts” (p. 2).

The least but not the last point that cannot be omitted is finding a perfect solution for solving the issue that revolves around China. In this case the balance power theory can be employed. According to this theory, military power should be distributed in order to maintain national equilibrium. Without any doubt, this distribution plays a key role in international relations, since there is no domination of one country over another one. According to Morgenthau (1978), one of the supporters of the balance power theory, “In international relations there is always a ‘holder’ or ‘balancer’ who checks where disequilibrium exists and how to precede the collapse of international collaboration” (p. 78). The supporters of balance-power theory claimed that the “holder” should adjust international relations and pointed out the ways to do it: by signing a peace agreement between alliances; by integration to a union or by taking an own course. It is generally true that the “balancer” should restore the balance of power. There are no certain peculiarities what country can act as a holder. In the conflict that is mainly concentrated between China, the USA and Western World, each country can act as the balancer. However, the “holder” should be isolated from the international disagreement and have enough power to influence two different geopolitical leaders. If these countries distributed their power, produced less nuclear devices and were not trying to compete with each other, there would be a strong possibility of the reunion of productive international relations. According to Morgenthau (1978), “China, the USA and Western Civilizations can collaborate of exporting their own products into international market without an aim of struggling for supremacy in the world arena” (p. 89). Consequently, each country should clearly understand its own advantages for marinating peace in the world. They should make the mutual concessions (Miller, 2004).

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Above all, it is vital to mention that solving the issue of territorial disagreements in accordance to international arbitration over the islands in the East and South China Seas will be a significant step in adjusting the relationships between the United States, the West and China. Furthermore, China should observe the law that was written by the East Asian Summit and ASEAN Plus Three political bodies. According to President of the United States Barack Obama, “The Unite States should lower tension over Taiwan and proclaim its unwillingness of taking Chinese territory this will lead to keep peace between our countries and consequently, it will lead to productive collaboration”(Morgenthau, 1978). Additionally, Chinese and American relationships can be improved by the consolidation of Strategic and Economic Dialogue. Furthermore, according to the Premier Wen (2012), “China has done the first step in reduction of carbon intensity and will continue to do this by applying it’s the 12th five year plan” (p.1). Moreover, China should monitor the financial sector and establish integrated economic system.

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All in all, it is generally true that the twenty-first century is a turning point on the geopolitical map of the modern world. China, the United States and the Western World are trying to reach superiority in the world and establish monopoly domination. It is needless to say that China is an emerging power, however many years should pass until this country can reach the status of “Superpower”. Moreover, the United States and the Western World also have difficulties in their governmental systems. Undoubtedly, China, the United States and Western Europe should take advantage of a balance-power theory as a fully-fledged theory that will play a crucial role in establishing peace in the world, otherwise conflicts between these countries can lead to the beginning of the third World War.


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