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Different researchers and scholars have defined organization behavior on their own manner. However, according to Debra (2012), an organizational behavior refers to the study of individuals and the way they behave within the context of organization with reference to a work place setting. Organizational behavior is one of the fundamental issues of any organization. It is an essential and interdependent tool for achieving the goals and objectives within an organization. Before the set-up of an organization, there are objectives that are laid out and which are identified to be achieved by the organization within a specified period of time. These goals cannot be achieved without much endurance, determination and proper management. If these attributes are to be met, the organization has to set a strong foundation that will ensure that the organization upholds required values. Donaldson (2010) defines organizational behavior as a study that deeply examines the effects that a group of people and their structure has on the behavior within an organization with an objective of implementing such knowledge to improve the organizational efficiency. The behavior that individual performs in an organization affects the long term and short term goals hence as a result has an effect on the process of achieving specific goals.
When people interact in an organization, various issues crop up. Therefore, organizational behavior should be a major focus in any organization as people with diverse cultural values and backgrounds engage in the destiny of the company, and they have to work together effectively and efficiently. Kippenberger (2002) in his writing states that organizational behavior establishes the relationships that exist between the organization and the people throughout a systematic approach. The people-organization relationship can be expressed in terms of a person, an organization, a group, and the social system. The core objective of organization behavior is to create a strong relationship between the people and the organization through attaining human, organization and social objectives. This paper focuses on the factors that have a strong impact on the organization behavior, and what needs to be employed in order to lead to an organizational development.
The Elements of Organisational Behavior
Organizational behavior takes into account several aspects which include human behavior, leadership, change, and teams. The elements of organizational behavior refer to the combination of the constituents that form the rules and regulations that will guide people in an organization. Such constituents include people, technology, structure, and the surrounding environment. People are included to the social system as an instance that is categorized under group. A group is classified as formal, informal and dynamic. Therefore, a group as an element has a vital role to play in any organization due to its dynamism and flexible traits. The perception that people have towards any undertaking in life, is an element that determines their behavior. Punctuality of an employee is usually seen as a way of efficiency. Structure as an element gives a description of the associations of people as a homogenous group and their respective roles. Organizational structure has contributed to the emergence of divisions of work and departmentalization thereby leading to subdivision of work. This subdivision of work brings the insurance that the work allocated is done efficiently and effectively. Different departments in an organization are inter-reliant; hence, they need to work hard to accomplish the allocated task. Technology, which seems to take control of each activity on planet earth, has revolutionized the production and many organizations have adopted it. Technology allows the production of large amounts of goods and services of high quality. The environment, which is the other element of organizational behavior consists of both internal and external factors. The internal factors refer to those activities which an organization can control such as supplies and production. The external factors refer to the activities which an organization has no control over, such as other organizations productions. The final results of any organization are individual satisfaction, performance, and personal growth and development. The combination of these builds the model from which an organization operates.
Organizational Behavior Models
The organizational behavior is based upon the following cardinal frameworks which include supportive, custodial, collegial, autocratic, and system. Autocratic organizational behavior builds its basis on power with a managerial inclination of authority. The people in command should use their power effectively. The followers should not have objections to their leaders, and they heavily depend on them so that their job desires are satisfied. The outcome for an employee is absolute dependency on the boss, who has the mandate to hire and fire them. This model is characterized by low payment since little or no attention is given to the workers. The consequences of implementation of such model on the practice results in low performance and decreasing motivation results. However, the major weakness of this model is its high human cost that is caused by micromanagement. Micromanagement is a normal sequence of autocratic managers. This implies the involvement of a manager into controlling daily operations details. Employees dislike such micromanager who has a reduced morale, poor decision making and a high turn-over. This model would be useful in an organization when there are extreme conditions such as crises in the organization.
The custodial model is based on economic resources with a managerial orientation inclined towards money. The employees are inclined towards advantages, security and much reliance on the organization. The employees needs for security are usually met in custodial style of organizational behavior. Employees are satisfied with their conditions though most of the employees do not produce to their maximum capacities. Consequently, the performance in custodial model results in passive cooperation. This model leads to the creation of dependency on the organization by the employee rather than on the boss since the needs of an employee would have been met. In this model, employees are normally occupied with their benefits and economic rewards.
The supportive organizational behavior model largely depends on the leadership style rather than power and money. Orientation of employees is directed towards performance and the motivation to participate in their respective jobs. The management offers an environment that is conducive to employees to ensure that there is the achievement of their goals at the benefit of an organization. It makes the employees feel as if they are a part of the organization and the psychological aspects are the feelings of dedication and motivated participation in the organization. The employees are highly motivated since their status and recognition needs are satisfied hence they have a self-drive for work. When management gives an opportunity, the team takes it as their responsibility to perform high levels of transparency and accountability, advance themselves, develop an initiative to contribute. The management’s inclination in supportive organizational behavior focuses on the employee’s performance rather than on the payment benefits that they get from the employer.
The collegial model focuses on partnership feeling between the employee and management with a lot of emphasis on teamwork. The results of this model make employee feel useful, required, and functional. They develop a feeling of fulfillment, self-actualization and worthwhile contribution. The perspective of managers in this model changes from leaders to contributors who are, like any other worker, involved in the task accomplishment. The employees are inclined towards self-discipline and responsible behavior. In collegial model, self-actualization as an employee’s need is met. This self-actualization leads to adequate enthusiasm in performance.
The system model is another model which lays its emphasis on ethics, integrity and trust. In this model the employees are working in an environment that is filled with respect for one another, integrity, and trust, and offer an opportunity to experience a developing sense of community among the workers. Employees show a high spirit while at work. They have the desire to exploit themselves fully in order to realize their full potential, to contribute to the society, and exhibit high integrity in all their projects. There is an increased sense of caring, compassion, and sensitivity to the requirements of the diverse from managers. Moreover, managers spend a portion of their time on focusing how they can help employees develop positive feeling of hope, self-confidence, trustworthiness, optimism and courage. They work diligently to display authenticity and social intelligence to workers. The managers engage in facilitating activities to make the employees feel comfortable while in their place of work. Employees appreciate the effectiveness of the organization which creates a sense of mental ownership for the organization together with its products and services. Employees have a self-motivation, commitment, and passion for achieving the goals of the organization.
Culture, Social Systems, and Individualization
Organization’s social system is an intricate collection of interactions between human beings. It is a collection of people and how they relate to each other and the environment. The behavior of any associate can be detrimental to the organization and other workers behavior either directly or indirectly. French (2011) in his work on Organizational Behavior sates that social system has no boundaries in the trade of trade of ideas, goods, and culture with its environment.
Culture is the normal society’s conduct that constitutes beliefs, knowledge, customs, and practices. Culture in some manner affects human mind without getting into human consciousness. The reliance on culture provides stability,understanding, security, and situational responsibilities. This ensures a concrete explanation as to why change is feared. Employees very often have a phobia on how to approach new situations, insecurity and instability that are encompassed in the change. However, individualization is the successful exertion of influence on the social system by the employers thus are challenging the culture. This comes into a place where people engage into arguments concerning different cultures.
Organizational development is a constituent of organizational behavior that refers to the methodological distribution of behavioral science and knowledge at various levels such as the organization. The objectives of organizational development include better quality of working conditions, productivity, effectiveness, and capacity. These objectives are achieved through changing attitudes, values, conduct, organizational policies, and structures to enable the organization acclimatize to the competitive-technological innovations, and rapid changes in management. Organization development can be illustrated by humanistic values, problem solving, systems orientation, and contingency orientation. Humanistic values are affirmative values regarding employees’ potential. The orientation systems refers to organizational segments such as structure, and technology that must work together. Contingency orientation involves selection of actions to suit the need.
In conclusion, organizational behavior focuses on the relationships that exist between people and the organization. Therefore, leaders have the ability to influence the people socially since they are the intermediaries between the people and the organization. Their role in organizational behavior should be continuous and checked at all times. Organizational behavior is not only affected by people but also by technology, structure, and the environment which are in its composition. Various styles of organizational behavior are supportive, custodial, collegial, autocratic, and system. These styles impact on the organization due to their different modes of relations. Therefore, organizational behavior has a great impact on the progression of the organization. It is a duty of each organization to focus on organizational behavior if the organization has to advance and achieve its intended goals. As it is clear from the above discussion, organizational behavior is mostly influenced by the relations that exist between people and their leaders. Therefore, leaders should ensure that employees feel to part of the family by creating a strong relationship.