Every successful workplace creates a culture that values the qualifications of all the team members. If the company is willing to deliver the best results it should use the best tools to measure the individual qualities of every person. Such an approach will increase the effectiveness and productivity as well as the overall performance of the company. The most important success factor is a goal that any company can reach by managing motivation and creativity. There are different tools and theories that discuss such aspects in order to organize a well-operated workplace.
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The application of Taylor’s human work measurement addresses the inspiration to “help employees reveal the creative ideas and boost productivity” (Taylor 1972, 115). The “structure of the intellect” created by Guilford is another tool that “helps to trace the mental abilities and uncover creativity of any person in terms of the products, their content and operations fulfillment” (Guilford and Christensen 1973, 251). Some managers have a test drive to measure creative thinking with the help of Torrance’s tests. A special intention of such tests was to design a tool that would “check the abilities of different people”. This approach would allow managers to distribute the work among employees based on their “interests and skills” (Torrance 1966, 23). It is very important to “study different approaches of creativity and generate them from the very beginning” of the working process, exactly as it is shown in the works of Simonton (Simonton 1975, 263).
Since the major role of a manager is to deliver the project on time and on budget, the one can use any tools in order to promote creativity. This would make any workplace more challenging and resourceful for the employees. In case a company hires a new employee, it is always better to “check whether this particular person has the aptitude to deliver different kinds of job, test it and then give an opportunity to take initiative and get a reward accordingly” (Katz, and Poag 1979, 527). Any of the mentioned tools could be helpful to plan, organize, monitor and control the operations of the running project as well as motivate the team members, improve the performance and meet the project objectives. Each tool has its own strengths and purposes and could be employed by the savvy project manager to produce better results in both creativity and productivity of the employees.
Taylor’s “Creative Behavior Disposition Scale” can teach a manager a five-level creativity technique that was developed to “evaluate personalities with respect to expressive, technical, inventive, innovative and emergentive creativity” (Taylor 1986, 324). Guilford developed a test of “Divergent Thinking” that could help a manager “understand the human talent and intelligence by isolating the different types of thinking used to manage different tasks” (Guilford and Christensen 1973, 249). The “Torrance’s Tests of Creative Thinking” is another type of measurement designed to determine the strengths of people in relation to “planning, experiments and research skills” (250). Simonton examined the patterns of people who can predict creative productivity. He says, “People can't be creative unless they come up with something that hasn't been done before” (Simonton 1975, 269). These examples could serve the managers in a variety of ways to encourage creativity and productivity during the work.
Alternatively, the same measurement tools can hold back or threaten any project workflow instead of improving it. The major reason why the same techniques could have a negative effect is because of the personal and professional qualities of the project manager such as leadership, integrity and experience of the industry. Thus, an effective manager should possess such skills and qualities while running a project for the purpose of serving the team.
There is a gap in theory and practice of what it means to be a leader. Not all the information that is taught in universities reflects the real-life practice. The most important issue for every manager is to understand whether the one could consider himself a true leader. That depends mostly on the operating environment that is specific for each and every workplace. A leader should illustrate the understanding of different leadership styles as this is what matters most once there is a need to make a decision. The manager could face difficulties when using the creativity tools based on the leadership techniques that work differently under various working circumstances. Integrity and trustworthiness are considered to be the best qualities of an experienced project manager. If the manager possesses such qualities, this reduces any stress and creates a positive atmosphere for the project. In case the manager does not have such skills and qualities, none of the tools could foster motivation, creativity and productivity as the employees will not feel comfortable working with this person.
Every manager should have a “deep knowledge of the industry sector and the sphere to run the project as this is required for the proper organization of the working process” (Shapiro 1975, 73). The lack of knowledge and experience could result in the poor performance, miscommunication and confrontation to the managerial models and techniques listed above. The opposite results can create more problems in case a manager does not have a clear understanding of the project nature. This situation could be even worse if the one does not have the skills to manage the operations effectively with all the managing tool set. A decent manager is always capable of supporting the employees with everything they need in order to do the job. Any creative manager will help the employees improve their professional characteristics in order to manage both creativity and productivity for the project.
Managing creativity is an important aspect of every project fulfillment. This could be accomplished only by using the proper managing tools that motivate the employees, reveal their creativity, develop their personal and professional qualities and create value for the overall project team. The techniques of Taylor, Guilford, Torrance and Simonton could be used properly only if the manager uses the required personal qualities on the workplace. This would project more creative ideas, motivate employees and improve the productivity of any project.
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