Free «Nations, States and Boundaries» Essay Sample

Europe has experienced an age of economic growth from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. During this period the average growth rate of real GDP per person was just over 4 per cent per year. The growth may have decreased over the years to as low as 2 per cent but it is still growing at a constant rate. Rapid growth in Europe was founded on strong institutions and good policies which encouraged innovation and brought about real cost reduction. One of the main reasons why Europe was able to develop so much was the generally abandonment of the protectionism of the interwar period. This is to mean that Europe abolished its restrictions for trade between different regions and states. The reducing of barriers of trade facilitated gains from structural change and was also used to speed up the transfer of technology (Crafts 2007). The growth in the European region was due to four major factors, the catch up growth in post war Europe. Another factor was the regional aspects of European caught up and converged to be able to do better trading with one another as a way of ensuring their wealth remained among them. Another factor was the equilibrium of regional disparities. The inequality in regional disparity is well among the expected and manageable level within the country. Since the inequality could be stabilized within the country it led to growth of the region as they did not have to depend on anyone else.The last factor was the Celtic tiger (Harry, 1990). This is a term used to describe the economy of Ireland during the period of rapid economic growth between the years 1995-2007. This Celtic tiger is firmly located in the era of globalization and regional economic growth (Badinger, 2005). Economic integration of East Asia was triggered by the financial crisis of 1997 to 1998. The East Asia path of economic integration has been built up mostly by market cooperation following a multi-layered framework. The East Asia integration has been driven by capital flow from more developed economies to the less developed economies a good example would be capital flow from Japan. Currently the capital flows are greatly and deeply intersected among the developing countries to the developed countries. This has facilitated capital and technology transfer, whereas it has developed a vertical economic growth chain in East Asia. Another factor of this integration would be the trade and friendly foreign direct investment policy and the open market strategy. This means that the East has reduced transaction costs significantly making market based integration easier. Also economic rise of China as a result of its great population and size translating into huge market potential has become a factor for regional economic growth and restructuring. China has become an important hub as a market for both capital flow and market for import goods and services (Harry, 1990). The integration has caused the region to develop a regional spirit and consciousness.

Europe and East Asia have both used various approaches to integration. The European model has been considered successful and promoted cooperation in the region. It has greatly reduced the income gap among member countries. This is to mean that the members country all have a GDP value that is relatively almost the same and therefore none of their countries are in poverty while some experience a lot of wealth. Europeans realized the importance of sharing and working together with their neighbors to build more integrated economies and societies. The reduction of the income gap was brought about due to abandoning the protectionism. The legalistic approach to regional cooperation by the Europeans encompassed the development of wide and deep regional institutions and was able to generate economic gains. This was possible due to the creation of a single market, the single monetary union which is the euro, coordination among national authorities in economic, social and political matters making them a force to be reckoned with, which included the creation of parliament and court of justice (Capannelli, Filippini 2009).The East Asia model takes a flexible and more pragmatic approach. This means they are more concerned with facts and actual occurrences, practically. It is based on the transmission of industrial development from the more developed to the less developed countries in their region. It also has an open approach to non-regional members, while pursuing a simultaneous deepening of regional and global independence. They aim to sustain economic integration that has been brought about by market forces through cooperation initiatives. It involves a few institutions with limited power and responsibility from the national authorities to manage external prospects and regional spillovers. A summary of the steps used in the development of the European integration can be seen as free trade, customs unions, common currency and a single market. After the creation of a single currency the Europeans introduced free movement of goods, services and labor and started close coordination of monetary exchange rate policies (Aarns, 2003). The base of the Europeans is the extensive institutional structure, close intergovernmental cooperation in security and foreign policy and bureaucracy. Asia is based on consecutive developments in trade and monetary areas. There led to close, macroeconomic and financial cooperation among the Asian economies. They did not have to form a single market or a common currency for their integration.

Another major difference between the European and East Asian integration were the rules and regulations for entering regional groups. The entry rules in the European are quite clear and categorized as democracy, market and acceptance of national systems, in the East Asia it is difficult to identify their particular rules for joining. So far it can be said that they look at case by case. Although some may stipulate that the European path for regional integration may be best for regional integration I agree. This is because they have clearly defined rules and regulations that will be reflected in how they manage all their resources and how the new members should be. The European method will show and give step by step process for bring up their countries. Also due to reducing the income gap the region will become very strong economically. The path for Europe's integration is also irreversible because once you have adopted the common currency, changing it in the future would be extremely expensive and likely destabilize the country.In question two Civilizations are defined by the dictionary as "a human society developed very highly in spiritual resources, cultural, political and legal organization." It has also been defined as Huntington argues that in the new world, conflicts will not be primarily ideological or economic. He argues that due to the great divisions among humankind on along ethnic and cultural lines, the source of conflict will cultural. There will still be nations that will remain the most powerful of states but conflicts of global politics will occur among groups of different civilizations. This clash will dominate global politics and will be the line upon which allies and enemies will be drawn (Huntington 1993).During the cold war all the world was divided into first, second and third world countries. Today these divisions hold no water on them. Countries are now grouped in terms of their culture and civilization. Ethnic groups, region and villages all have distinct cultures at different levels of cultural heterogeneity. This can be seen in that the culture in the south of Spain will be different from that in the north butt ultimately the Spanish culture will join them together. However this culture will distinguish them from the Germans or the Greeks. Similarly Arab communities will have cultures that will distinguish them from the European communities or the Chinese communities or Africa. Civilization is therefore the highest cultural grouping of people which is defined by common objective, common language, history, religion customs and institutions that the people use to identify themselves with. Civilization may also involve a large number of people which China can be given as an example. A civilization may also include a number of tastes foe example the Western or Latin America (Aarns, 2003).Huntington believes the civilization will clash because they are many societies and are not ready to interact because of their high levels of intolerance for one another. These societies only see themselves as the right and best and hold the others in low regard and in disregard. He believes that there are eight major civilizations, this include Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American and African. The clashes among these civilizations will occur because; the differences among them are not real but are basic (Aarns, 2003). They are differentiated culturally along many different lines but the most important want is religion. They all have different views on the relationships between, man and God, citizens and state, individual and group, parents and children, husbands and wife, liberality, authority and hierarchy.Another reason for the conflict to arise will be because the world is becoming smaller. This is mainly as a figure of speech as the actual size of the earth is not decreasing but the interactions between people of different civilizations are increasing and these increasing interactions are intensifying with the civilizations, consciousness and awareness of the differences among them (Tatt, 2003). Immigrations of people with different cultures are leading to them having to interact more closely and not only hear or read of them as statistical numbers and reports. A case example would be, Americans react more negatively to a Chinese investment than to an investment from Europe and at the same time Germany reacts negatively to immigrations from Africa than from those in the America. This is what builds up to animosity among the cultures. The economic modernization and social change throughout the world are separating local communities. They are also weakening the nation's state as can be seen in many African countries where people have been 'westernized'. This has le to formation of groups of people who have been labeled as fundamentals. This movements are founded in Judaism, Hinduism and as well as Islam. Most of these fundamentalists happen to be the young and professional college educated and middle class in the regions. Huntington believes that the two major civilizations that will clash will be the west and the rest. This is because the west is greatly spreading and penetrating other regions at rates which are alarming to those in those regions.

The Weberian perspective was brought forward by Max Weber who defined state as "an entity which claims a monopoly on the legitimate use of violence." Max Weber argued that the end of cold war would bring about proliferation of genocide and fundamentalist religious terrorism due to what he described as the protestant ethic and spirit of capitalism, ancient Judaism, sociology of Hinduism and Buddhism and Confucianism and Taoism. He argued that the puritan ethic and ideas influenced the development of capitalism and at the same time religious devotion usually is accompanied by rejection of mundane affairs (Wayne, 2002). He argued that some Protestantism favored the rational pursuit of economic gain although he points out that not all of them agreed to this which is what led to fallouts among them. Some types of Protestantism gave the gaining of economic and worldly activities positive spiritual and moral meaning. He also looked at the Chinese religion where he addressed the fact that capitalism did not develop in china.This further differentiated the Chinese from the western world leading to conflict. He showed that the Confucianism tolerated a great number of cults which all had systematic religious bases in them. In this it was seen as better to become a civil servant than a businessman as that way it served everyone and not just one self (Tatt, 2003). He also observed the Hinduism and Buddhism where the concluded that there cultural bonds were very tightly joined together and insisted on helping to develop your brother and sister from the same community. The Weber school of thought then argued that destroying the other people not of your culture was to be considered holy in some of the cultures which led them to increase the acts against fellow humans on basis of them being seen as the antichrist in some and as the great Satan by others.To conclude, the best way to avoid these conflicts in the modern world is to all agree to respect the beliefs of the other individual. We should all agree to disagree when it comes to matters of religion and culture where none is greater than the other (Tatt, 2003).


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