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Free «Poverty in Less Developed Countries» Essay Sample

The 20th century has seen a general rise of integration between countries in terms of economic activities. The international economic activities have recorded tremendous levels of integration .This are due to cross-border exchange of goods and services particularly after the end of World War II. This has mainly been facilitated within the framework of international trade integration. One of the effects of World War II was the rise in economic integration that is experienced by the liberal capitalist nations, as well as the rise in number of developing nations. The support for globalization by most of the world's poor stems from the advantages that it presents to the poor who remained marginalized by the old economic order set by World War II and Cold War. The increase in connectivity, integration and interdependence brought about by globalization in respect to social, economical, technological and cultural perspectives presents a cocktail of advantages and positive transformation for the world's poor.

In addition to the above, the world's poor support globalization because of the efficient and faster movement of people, decrease in the probability of war between the developed nations, common market and free trade between regions and countries, and the reduction in cultural barriers that increases the possibilities for the realization of dreams. The formation of trade zones and trade agreements not only open markets for the products from poor countries but also reduces regulations and tariffs. The poor are placed within a position in the global arena that empowers them to exploit their skills for personal growth and development.

Globalization technology opens up the possibilities for the world's poor through a number of perspectives that include the enhancement of sharing of information to the most remote areas of the globe, efficient communication systems through internet, mobile phones and communication satellites, and multiculturalism spread that decreased diversity due to hybridization. To drive the concept globalization, technology has also formed the most critical ingredient in that it has enabled the efficient communication, erased the technical problem of language barrier, and united the world into one community. The increased globalization has provided business owners with the opportunity to market and sell their goods abroad at cheaper prices.

The invention of the steamboat, the internet, and the faster and efficient air transport system have reduced the distance between regions and enhanced the ease and speed of trade. According to Burande (5)," It is claimed that globalization increases the economic prosperity and opportunity in the developing world, the civil liberties are enhanced, and there is a more efficient use of resources." This is because all countries have the capacity to participate in free trade.

Globalization has further influenced the role of women in stimulating economic growth. In fact, there is abidance in the fact that globalization is registering progress on all fronts in the poor nations including women's entrepreneurship. The business landscape is subject to considerable contributions from women in respect of various innovative and supportive entrepreneurship activities that have been precipitated by positive contributions of globalization. Previously cultural, religious, social, or political barriers negated women's gains. In many most poor nations, women were for a long time regarded as non-potential income or profit motivators in businesses.

The impact of globalization on poverty, war and human rights and security must be emphasized. Poverty is posing a great threat to human security as well as global peace (Human Security centre, 6). This is because it promotes crime and irresponsible human behaviors that impedes on the achievement of peace and human security. On the other hand, civil war as experienced in the African continents is not only a threat to human peace but also to global development. Globalization has effectively made the world a common village in which happenings in one geographical region affects the condition in another region. The benefits of globalization have drastically reduced regional and territorial rivalry based on realization of benefits of peaceful co-existence. Human rights and security is an integral point not only to development but also to human kind survival on earth ( Kaldor, 3). Without the critical component of human security, life, trade, and free movement of goods are restricted. In fact, it there is abidance in the fact that regional development, trade, technological inventions and improvements are all pegged on security of human kind and the protection of human rights as well as the right to enjoy all the fundamental freedoms. The question of whether human rights will improve remains best analyzed from the perspective of globalization. Emerging themes however point out that global peace will enhance trade and economic development, which is a great incentive to improvements of human rights and poverty levels in the developing world.

The numerous opportunities presented by globalization appear to tap into a natural sense of entrepreneurialism that is present to a surprisingly large extent even in countries that have never before been viewed as being free-market capitalist. This is because it is through the adoption of trade reforms towards more open and free markets that enables these nations to join the emerging global markets. The need to operate within the accepted international rules of trade, adopt supranational recognition of intellectual property restrictions and reap from the benefits of regional and international trade agreements constitute some factors have pushed the closed market countries to develop entrepreneurship.

Business success across diverse cultures has also been equated to benefits of globalization through diversity. Workforce diversity is the interaction among people of different cultures, ethnic groups, gender and age who work together in an organization. The worlds increasing globalization has greatly promoted workforce diversity since people have become part of the worldwide economy with the aim of increasing the level of creativity and to maximizing the profitability of organizations. According to Jackson (28)"diversity is generally defined as acknowledging, understanding, accepting, valuing, and celebrating differences among people with respect to age, class, ethnicity, gender, physical and mental ability, race, sexual orientation, spiritual practice, and public assistance status." The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the extent to which diversity management was a new organizational paradigm for equality policy-making. In the understanding that equality decision policy-making is a multifaceted issue, the essay will seek to analyze the manner in which diversity management impacts on major organizational decisions in regards to equality.

Our business community and culture has for decades embraced the fact that good business should conform to standard ethics in business management. Appreciating diversity in organizations demand that each individual form a bigger part of the business entity yet they must work together knowing that their objectives and goals are far greater than their differences. It is a major component of business life and forms the very foundation of business stability (Jackson, 32). Our role in this chain is to facilitate and accelerate the rate at which diversity happen within our businesses. In the cacophony of business management, diversity plays the critical role through which a new organizational paradigm for equality policy-making is anchored. This is because diversity management influences communication cultures, precipitates change, demands the positive contributions of the stakeholders, and determines the levels of productivity and employee satisfaction. A congregation of the above factors is a pointer to organizational success and levels of profitability.

Within the policy of communication, an organization must institute management techniques that have the capacity to overcome cultural and language barriers that constitute the major bottlenecks to effective communication. Ineffective communication results to a state of confusion, lack of employee motivation, lack of employee commitment and the low morale (Jackson, 25). Work force that comprises of individuals from different backgrounds must coexist in an atmosphere that enhances both respect and understanding. The culture of communication within an organization remains the central factor in determining the levels of work diversity management. To manage communication, Jackson (34) illustrates that "Perceptual, cultural and language barriers need to be overcome for diversity programs to succeed."

Globalization demands the concept of equality in human resource management and is a pivotal determinant in diversity management and business success. Equality on other had is defined by Jackson (19) as "ensuring individuals or groups of individuals are treated fairly and equally and no less favorably, specific to their needs, including areas of race, gender, disability, religion or belief, sexual orientation and age." Equality policy making therefore ensure that communication culture and models are modeled in a manner that take keen cognizance on the diverse groups within the organization. The common challenge that arises from diversity is that different people within an organization have different backgrounds (Jackson, 17).

However, within the cacophony of benefits of globalization to the poor that has raised poverty levels in developing countries, there lies a number of demerits that have aggravated poverty. Bioterrorism incidents of 2001 and the SARS epidemic of 2003 are good reasons enough for leaders to think more seriously on the need for a global health system and the impacts of globalization to the poor nations. This is more disturbing given the understanding that poor nations have little or no technological and medical capacities to manage these global health complications. In addition to the above, the inability to achieve a global health system is not very difficult to point out. Most of the developed countries still have many challenges in the provision of a universal health care system for their citizens. Even in Japan whose heath care system ranks as the best in the world still, grasp with domestic health challenges on how to improve on policies that are already in existence. The lives of many in the poor nations are at risk from globalization.

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Global Health Education Consortium (1) in their article - "why Global Health? illustrates that "drug resistant infectious diseases, natural and humanitarian crises, malnutrition and contaminated foods, toxic substances, biological and chemical terrorism and weak, inefficient or dysfunctional health systems; realities like these are affecting the health of people all over the world". The human race demands quality health no matter where they live on this globe and this depends largely on how to manage the health. This fact points at globalization and its role in the demand for a global health system. In addition to the above, travel and immigration, globalization of trade, urbanization, and chronic diseases and inadequate public health infrastructure in the world form the key issues behind the concerns for globalization.

Diseases that were traditionally under control have become more prevalent due to globalization and complex to manage and control. The number of deaths recorded in the world is increasing by the day. Cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, and yellow fever have contributed to a number of deaths and have been able to spread to regions that had never experienced such diseases such as the United States. In addition to the above, "Avian flu is spreading on the wings of migrating birds and the HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to wreak havoc, primarily in the poorest countries of the world in that the more disease spreads unchecked in resource poor regions of the world, the higher the risk to travelers" (Global Health Education Consortium, 1).

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The today's environment dominated by capitalism, free trade, and inability to regulate trade has put the lives of millions of residents in danger of contacting dangerous diseases such as HIV and AIDS. This is because human beings have better opportunities to socialize and interact in the courses of their trade activities. Furthermore, the threats from waterborne bacteria, pesticides, and military arsenals are ever on the increase. Around three billion people - virtually half of the world's total population now live in urban settlements (Cohen, 2005, p.1). This has put pressure on the existing public health care system and provided the breeding grounds for epidemics.

In conclusion, the impacts of globalization on developing countries comprise both advantages as well as demerits. However, the analysis support the fact that the benefits of globalization to the world's poor cannot be underestimated and sum of globalization overweighs its concerns. Support for globalization by most of the world's poor stems from the advantages such as increase in connectivity, integration and interdependence brought about by globalization in respect to social, economical, technological and cultural perspectives presents a cocktail of positive transformation for the world's poor. In addition to the above, efficient and faster movement of people, decrease in the probability of war between the developing nations, common market and free trade between regions and countries, and the reduction in cultural barriers that increases the possibilities for the realization of dreams remain beneficial to the poor. Furthermore, globalization presents opportunity for research initiatives across diverse cultures that are important in the management of global health complication. It is discerned that its benefits overweighs its concerns and thus positively affects the lives of the poor.


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