Climate change is the deviation in the statistical distribution of global weather over time due to natural variations or human causes. The change can refer to variations in average weather or an observable difference in the distribution of weather patterns around a certain average value (Shah, 2010). These fluctuations vary on both extremes from high to low values. On the other hand, global warming is the observed and projected increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Since the middle of the 20th century, global surface temperatures have been increasing mainly being caused by emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Climate change and global warming are much related and almost synonymous. However, global warming refers to rise in global temperatures whereas climate change includes variation in precipitation as well as temperature received on the earth surface (Shah, 2010).
Human activities have been a major cause of increase in global temperatures. This has been confirmed by the opinions of many scientists who argue that "it is unequivocal that the climate is changing, and it is very likely that this is predominantly caused by the increasing human interference with the atmosphere" (Dunaway, 2009). The increase in temperature would be an advantage for those people living near the poles as they would experience warm weather. The increase in temperature is as a result of Emission of poisonous gases in the atmosphere. These emissions originate from combustion of petroleum and its byproducts from automobiles and industries among other combustible hydrocarbons. However, not always do human activities lead to these issues. There are natural causes of climate change such as variations in solar energy, changes in the earth's orbit as well as continental drift. The surface of the sun consists of very hot burning gases and depending on the position of the earth on its orbit relative to the sun, it can receive varying temperature values. A small drift from the orbit can result to changes in the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth surface (Dunaway, 2009)