Global warming essentially refers to the increase in temperature not only on earth but also on the oceans and the near-surface air, something has been traced from mid 20th century and also expected to continue. In course of the last 100 year, the average increase in air temperature has been close to 10 Celsius. According to experts, a 10 Celsius makes the globe comparably warmer than it would have done a thousand year ago. In fact out of the twenty warmest years, nineteen of them have occurred between 1980 to date, while the three hottest years can be found in the last eight years.
This increase in global temperature has been attributed to human activities since the industrial revolution came knocking. It is no doubt that global warming present the world with very limited options if ever there are any options. It would be interesting to see how the world goes about addressing this phenomenon that has been referred to as the worst threat to the whole universe since the beginning of time.
Extreme flooding has been observed in various places in Africa. A good example can be found in Uganda where a flood rendered at least 400,000 people homeless (Simms, et al, 2005). Obviously this was as a result of a severe rainfall which majority of the residents of the area confessed having never witnessed such a downpour. According to global warming experts this might be child-play when compared to what is likely to characterize the future as far as rainfall is concerned, if global warming is not halted in the soonest time possible. Floods are known to leave thousands of people homeless, which also as been the case with the latest spate of extreme flooding, not to mention the negative effect on food supplies that have been following these calamities. In this regard I am referring to the starvation that has been the norm in the flooding of this nature that has been scattered all over African since the phenomenon of global warming was believed to have started. What this essentially means is that continued global warming will hit hard Africa mostly because of its unpreparedness as far as handling of such calamities is concerned (Simms, et al, 2005).
Another unpleasant consequence of flooding that has been found is the displacement of wildlife and even death of marine life due to toxic that has been washed into the water bodies by floods (Simms, et al, 2005). In fact it is estimated that if the flooding aggravate, and global warming in extension, there is a real danger of loosing the entire wildlife because of a number of reasons. First, animals that survive these extreme floods will most likely fail to find places to retreat which will literary be a death sentence (Simms, et al, 2005). The most resilient animals among them will also perish in the long-run because of lack of grazing field or nourishment, which just like I have mentioned will be the end of the wildlife. What will follow the demise of the wildlife will be no doubt be the sudden death of the tourism industry which almost entirely rely on wildlife for sustenance.
Dykes should be built in the Coastal regions that have been found to be exposed to floods. Where floods have been found to be prevalent and comparably stronger, the dwellers of such areas ought to be relocated to safer grounds in order to prevent deaths in case floods persist (Simms, et al, 2005).
Other than floods extreme rainfall is also expected to have a ripple effect. This is in form of landslide that will no doubt follow rainfall. Normally, whenever heavy rains pound an area that is not used to that kind of rainfall loose soils starts falling to area that might as well be inhabited. This poses a serious and real danger that can only be addressed by acting on global warming, which has been found to be a major cause of this extreme rainfall. The unfortunate thing is that Africa is least prepared to couple with this kind of contingencies which therefore exposes its citizens to vagaries of landslides more than any other areas. Global warming has been blamed for the increased number of deadly landslides that have been occurring in course of this century, and especially over the last half century (Simms, et al, 2005).
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In fact, unlike in the past, landslide have become more catastrophic than before, as can be witnessed by the landslide that occurred in Bududa district of Uganda. This particular landslide was particularly devastating as can be testified by the way it flattened whole villages in the mountainous regions of Bududa (Simms, et al, 2005).According to statistics a total of 86 people villagers were claimed by the landslide while another 250 are yet to be found, meaning the mortality of the calamity might as well have been underestimated by the time of reporting. Like I have commented in course of this paper Africa is least prepared to handle calamities due to myriads of factors. One of the things that this disaster does is to expose Africa's inability to handle natural disasters which therefore spells doom for this continent if global warming will continue unchecked as is the case at the moment.
African has been very slow in embracing the measures that have been proposed by scientists in halting the advancement of global warming. This means that their citizens continue being exposed dangerously to the severe vagaries of extreme floods that have become a norm in vast swathes of land in African. This does not however mean that governments in Africa should sit back and rue, instead they should commence relocating their citizens from spots that have been identifies as most exposed to landslide as they rush against time together with the rest of the world to halt the acceleration of global warming (Simms, et al, 2005).
Besides floods and landslides there is also the increased threat to health of the inhabitants of the continent of Africa. This health threat is real as can be evidenced by the increased incidents of heat-related illnesses like heat exhaustion that has been observed in vast regions scattered all over Africa (Simms, et al, 2005). Another demonstration of this health danger can be found in the previously rare complications like those ones emanating from dehydration and starvation, two phenomenons that are closely linked with increased temperature which has become the 'trademark' for global warming.
The overwhelming heat waves that have been sweeping African due to global warming will no doubt bring with themselves poisonous plants and vegetation that if consumed by living things will increase toxic in their bodies thereby predisposing them to illness (Simms, et al, 2005). The decreased air quality that has been blamed on global warming and especially on summer will most definitely improve the condition for disease-carrying insect thereby increasing human susceptibility to disease (Simms, et al, 2005). An example of this can be found in a recent report that confirmed the death of six young men in Lake Havasu after being infected with deadly ailment by rare fatal parasite. There is also the poisonous ivy vines that have been found by scientists to be growing ten time denser at the savannah today than a couple of year ago, which is another real danger to the health that stares in the face of African and the world in general (Simms, et al, 2005). This in a context of an over-stretched health care system that characterize majority of African countries is likely to be quiet devastating.
From the above there is no doubt that there is a looming danger on the health not just in Africa but the world over which therefore call for concerted effort to avert the same. One of the things that governments in Africa in corroboration with communities and other stakeholders ought to do is to start preparing for the worst case scenario because the world is unlikely to address all the issues that have been identified as key to halting this menace (global warming). In this regard I am talking about putting in place measure that will increase preparedness of the increased incidents of sicknesses that has already commenced. They can start by stretching coverage of the health care services while increasing the access of the same through provision of medical insurance schemes that cover almost everybody and every aspect of health (Simms, et al, 2005).
Also required at the moment are heat-wave-warning systems together with response for towns and cities all over Africa (Simms, et al, 2005). Infrastructural development in coastal areas that have been found vulnerable will also go along way in reducing the impact of global warming in Africa (Simms, et al, 2005). Citizens should also been encouraged to build green buildings which are normally cool and therefore healthy (Simms, et al, 2005).
There is no doubt that mother earth is increasing heating up. It might have taken time to connect the rising sea level with global warming. However, today, it is official that the current sea level rise is as a result of global warming. This rise in sea level has primarily been attributed to increased rate of melting of glacier and ice sheet in world oceans, something that has been blamed on increasing world temperatures (Simms, et al, 2005).
Scientists estimate that by the end of this century sea level will be elevated by at least three feet (one meter) (Simms, et al, 2005). After that the increase might escalate to several meters per century at which point scientist assume a number of islands will be forced to vanish from the surface of the world. Already Africa is feeling the heat as can be witnessed by a number of events that have occurred in course of the last couple of year. For instance, the ice cap in Mt Kilimanjaro, which is the highest peak in Africa, has consistently been on the decline thanks to increased temperature that have been witnessed in the region over several year since this problem commenced (Simms, et al, 2005). Scientist believe that Kilimanjaro's ice sheet will have melted completely within the next thousand years, something that they believe will increase the sea level substantially, while threatening the existence of low-lying countries like Maldives and Bangladesh (Simms, et al, 2005). In fact in a thousand years' time the melting that would have taken place in the world would have submerged Bangladesh substantially while completely submerging Maldives. Just as has been observed, receding glacier will continue threatening the survival of polar bear that are dependent on glacier for survival (Simms, et al, 2005).
Oceans and Sea of the world have also been witnessing a decrease in the concentration of coral reefs primarily due to the warmer temperature which are not ideal for their growth and development (Simms, et al, 2005). This are some of the things that have been used to explain the rise in sea level that has been observed and which is assumed to be another product of global warming. Sea rise will increase the concentration of carbon dioxide on the air thereby creating new health challenges that will most likely stretch the already overstretched health services systems in Africa.
Just like the other products of global warming, this sea rise posses a serious danger to the existence of the world and especially those living in Africa which is least prepared to protect its citizens from the vagaries of this sea rise.
To counter the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide emanating from compromised heat trapping abilities of the world due to sea rise people need to be sensitized on the need to reduce the use of fossil fuel (Simms, et al, 2005). Coastal cities that are under threat should be cleared off any human habitation because at the moment they are receiving inhabitants which might be ignorant of the reality of the unfortunate eventuality that has been predicted by experts. Cutting of tree ought to be discouraged while governments in Africa ought to embark on tree planting campaign that should endeavor to increase forest cover that has been greatly depleted by years of blatant logging. Alternative sources of energy also ought to be realized so that deforestation and logging can be completely done way with (Simms, et al, 2005). This is because in Africa deforestation has solely been blamed on the need for fuel in the context of grinding poverty, which can not allow Africans to access other source of energy.
Access to food within the regions of the African continent is expected to be adversely affected by the global warming. Tilt able lands that have been famously known for rich Agricultural production are being compromised by the rising temperatures and irregular climate. The effect of the same is expected to severely affect the areas that are located near to the arid and semi-arid lands. It is expected that the effect could therefore affect the rate of food production in the areas that have been perennial food baskets. A projection of a reduction by 50% of the total food production in Africa that depend entirely on rainfall is due in the year 2020. The problem will extend to the population that is not only over dependent on agriculture but also the fastest growing population rate ahead of other continents (Simms, et al, 2005). .
Problems caused by the global warming might affect the irrigated Agricultural land. This is specifically when the water level in lakes and stream sources dry up. Most of the water tributaries are dependent on the rains and the prevailing temperatures. When temperatures, the rate of evaporation goes high therefore causing the earth surface loose a lot of water through evaporation. During the process, the level of water underground goes down therefore leading to drying up of mass waters, streams and boreholes. Water available for irrigation by African farmers is from rivers and lakes and least irrigation from lakes and seas. Some of the rivers like the river Nile serve several countries on irrigation. Egypt entirely depends on the lake for its food production.
The problems are expected to worsen the tilt able land is exposed to other effect brought out by the global warming. For example the effect of the global warming causing land to dry up along with its environment. The droughts will eventually be followed by landslides in the highlands and flooding in the lowlands. Therefore agricultural products may be swept away by due to loose soil. The latter is expected to cost Farmers to run into losses; the demoralization may affect the farmers venturing the business therefore lowering the production cost. Fishing is neither compromised by the problem since especially in the lake due to raise in temperatures and the eventual drying up of lakes. Overfishing also contribute especially farmers resulting to fishing due in eventualities of the climatic changes.
Since global warming adversely affecting the prevailing climatic conditions in the continent, the solution to the food crisis should be based on non-rain dependent food production. Some possible solutions include the use of Genetically Modified Organism famously known as GMO technology (Simms, et al, 2005)s. The new technology is facing stiff resistances from many quarters in the Africa continent, the production of food my go beyond the normal human intervention therefore threatening the all population through poor health. Other solutions to the problem are emphasis on production through irrigation and improvising sourcing water from the seas for irrigation. Ocean water can definitely reliable due to its mass and interestingly it is contrary to the water masses in the land surface. The effect of global warming raises the sea level while it lowers the water level in the land. Therefore it works quite well if sea water is used for irrigation.
The major challenge that is being viewed by many experts as a major challenge is the inconsistency of the climatic conditions in especially in the regions that depended much on climate based development. The trend of climate since the global warming interfered with normal climatic conditions have been full of uncertainties including long term droughts and eventual high rainfall. The effect is a profile problem for the Africans to crack in the mean time therefore creating an animosity in the continent that is low in adapting to the climate change. The effect brought mostly industrialized countries such the China and the US as the main pollutants. They contribute mostly through industrial pollutions but ironically Africa is the least pollutant but it is the most affected continent.
According to a survey conducted, the climate change affects the rainfall and the rainfall severely and the rainfall expected fall annually therefore exposing an approximated 250 million people to water shortage associated problems by the year 2020 compared to the current 75 million people who are exposed(Simms, et al, 2005). The rise expected water dependency and people hit by water shortage is mainly because of rising population and dropping of water sources. Evidence of the escalated African environmental uncertainties includes the death of wild in the game park such the Tsavo game park in Kenya and melting of ice in the African highest mountains. Mount Kilimanjaro Tanzania, the highest mountain in Africa has loss its natural ice and it is expected to melt away if the global warming is not controlled any time soon. The effect never spared human beings especially through drought and low food production therefore instigating poverty and even death. Forests are also greatly affected especially by the high temperatures and low rainfall in places where rain was a frequent and frequent. Some species of tries dry off therefore reducing the forest cover.
Global warming has been blamed on industrialization and pollution. The effect does have not shown any sign of being caused by natural causes such as sun and volcanic irruptions. Therefore the solution lies between the pollutants and the way of reducing the impact of the problem. The conferences of global warming have been in forefront in offering the solution. From the Kyoto protocol, Montreal protocol and others that followed later including the Copenhagen climate conference of 2009. The agreements have played an important role in cutting down emission produced industrially. Other promising solution to the problem is funding to the African countries provided by the countries prone to emission of pollutants. The global funding will aid in reforestation and settling out the problem of over dependency on food produced through rainfall production.
If the protocols are adhered to by the governments and stern measures imposed on governments not adhering to, the problem global warming might go down and reduce the disaster that is waiting to strike especially in Africa.
Droughts and Famine as a Result of Temperature Rises
The effects of global warming have continued to intensify droughts which are becoming more and more severe. Different areas has continued to register build up of intense sand storms which are normally a normal phenomenon on dry grounds as the dry earth gets blow up by the high winds. The severe draught has continued to be a looming obstacle in growing of crops in many African countries. This has continued to bear diminishing effects in the inhabitant's food supplies. The sand storms have been realized to gain intensity and occur much more frequently. Global warming has continued to bring about rises in temperature in the realm of the extensive climatic changes(Salvado, 2005). This rises in temperatures have contributed to the sharp declines in crop production in African countries especially those lying in the tropical regions. African as a result of this has often been associated with increase in cases of malnutrition undernourishment, malaria and other deaths related to this.
In Africa 50 percents of the deaths that are registered have a close link to malnutrition as one of the effect of global warming as highlighted above. Globally Africa and Asia have been singled out as the two continents that are suffering more adversely from the highest rates crop losses (Salvado, 2005). These regions are known to have a very high dependent on agriculture as the main source of food and are also known to have the largest limits as far as purchasing power is concerned. The famines and droughts in addition to the violence and conflict that are characteristic of many of the African countries have continually increases to threaten the socio-political stability of these countries a very good example being the West African countries. Even some of the most prosperous African regions like the cape face these sorts of threats as water shortages and droughts continue to displace millions of inhabitants in Africa and more specifically the poor.
Specialist have especially from the World Bank have expresses their concern in the African situation having established that an estimate approximating to 7 million African inhabitants migrate, with food scarcity being their major drive, out of the approximately 80 million people starving from the African Sub-Saharan region. This is attributed to global warming which only aggravates the poor environmental factors characterizing these regions.
As part of the solution to the looming droughts and famine the practice of organic farming has been identified as one big opportunity that can help the African continent to break out from the cycle of malnutrition and poverty that have continued to devastate Africans for decade. T his is according to a report that has been released by the United States in The Independent. The report suggests that the employment of organic methods of farming is a clear way of boosting the incomes and yields for small scale farmers in Africa(Simms, 2005). This is because organic farming provides farmers wit the potential to make reduction on the dependence on pesticides and fertilizers. This will help them to focus on crops which are better adapted to the local African environment. These suggestions were drawn after the analysis of approximately 114 such kinds of projects in over twenty countries which gave evidently proved that yields doubled with the introduction of organic and the implementation of near organic farming methods.
The Green House effect
The green house effect has also been a major effect that has affected the African continent contributing to environmental and health problems in the continent. Quite surprisingly Africa is known to be the smallest emitter when it comes to the green house problem outside the Antarctica. Yet it continues to suffer more adversely from all the effects that come along with global warming. Land use which is inclusive of deforestation, agriculture land habitat degradation has been identified to account for approximately 30% of the anthropogenic emissions of green house gases not only in Africa but also in some global regions (Salvado, 2005). This amount exceeds when we bring in the global transportation sector into the picture. Though Africa has been cited as the least contributor to green house gas Research has indicated that deforestation through the ruinous timber cutting practices, arable land farming and charcoal burning contribute to at least 20% of atmospheres carbon burden.
Though this might be the case there is still some hope in containing this problem. If the continental environmental leaders can capitalize in improving the ecosystem of the continent them these gases can be reduced to less harmful amount. The massive amounts of carbon dioxide can be reduced through employing measures that will reduce deforestation while increasing reforestation, practicing of farming methods that have low Impacts in addition to the restoration of carbon in the soil by employing processes such as biochar. African inhabitants as well as the global population should also be encouraged to utilize technologies I renewable forms of energy which will reduce deforestation(Simms, 2005). The education sector of the African continent should intensify educational moves to sensitize their people on environmental issues. It should also try to encourage them to publicly participate in activities that will make them part of the global challenge in the reversion of climatic changes through the mitigation of global warming effects. This should not only be limited to the African continent but also in all developing countries. Developing countries should ensure that they cut their carbon emissions down to at least 20 percent with the help of already industrialize countries. A 40 percent cut should also be taken by this develop countries as they are the major contributors of the gases that accelerate global warming. They should ensure cuts I the usage of nuclear energy by relying on other sources of energy so that the effect of their usage does not spread to countries like Africa.
Increased Conflict/ Strive as a Result of Climatic Changes.
Global warming has been identified as one of the major contributors and has played a very crucial role in the escalating occurrences of political instability among many African regions. Conflicts in countries such as Sudan and Somalia have been linked to global warming. For instance just recently a very huge debate at the U.N. Security Council was spurred by the conflicts that hit Sudan in the Darfur region which raised questions on the role of climatic change on armed conflict. In a testimony by one former chief staff of the army, General Gordon Sullivan, he confessed that global warming is a threat multiplier when it comes to the worlds most volatile regions as it intensifies the already existing problems (Simms, 2005). The changing precipitation patterns and water shortages as a result of increases in temperature caused by global warming escalates occurrence of disputes over water bodies and viable farm land that remains. This has been discovered to lead to clashes, regional, tribal and international leading to war and abuse of human rights. Warmer temperatures as a result of global warming disrupt agricultural production which is a vital sourced of food and income accounts for almost 50 percent of the gross domestic product. This has very damaging effects on the economy of affected countries and sometimes leads to civil wars even within the county as regions try to control other forms of natural resources that will help towards their sustainability. For instance just recently Sudan was rocked by a lot of conflicts which led to civil war as different regions that is Northern and Southern Sudan were striving to control the oil resources in that country. This has lead to the division of the two parts of the country where they now want to be two different entities with different governments but which are under one country name.
In the face of these very dangerous impact resulting from global warming serious intervention require to be made in the mitigation of global warming to prevent it from continuing the exacerbation of the already the already existing problems. Many citizens most especially from central Africa have taken the fronts to lead the war against global warming and other environmental problems. They have used the environmental campaigns to call for peace as they go round the continent enlightening people of environmental issues. Just some few years ago we had a woman, Professor Wangari Matahai, crowned with the Nobel Peace Price for leading in the war against environmental degradation both in Africa and in the world. She had founded the green belt movement that focused on the growth of trees towards environmental conservation which directly impacts the quality of life.
Africa should encourage more leaders like this who will help pioneer all measure that can help reduce the effects of global warming so as to prevent countries from going into conflicts as they serve to compete for available natural resources that will help them sustain their lives. The Unite Nations, N.G.O and other international donors and developed countries should come in to rescue those parts that are adversely affected by the effects of globalization and who are facing conflicts as a result of this by; providing them with relief, educating them on global warming mitigation methods, make interventions in the war torn areas and most importantly of all developed countries should play their part in reduction of global warming to set a good example to Africans and lead them in the fight against global warming.
This is one of the threats of the global warming issue and it refers to the degradation of a given region as a result climatic changes. Increased temperatures as well as scarce rainfall will lead to increased chances of wildfire occurrences in Africa during winter on the savanna regions and summer on cape zones. A study conducted on the Tsavo National Park in Kenya indicated that 'large occasional disturbances' such as relentless drought on Maasai terrain towards the end of the 19th century resulted to the greatest and most ravaging effects. As Dr Lindsey Gillson put it, rigorous instable events as well as hasty environmental dynamics tend to happen occasionally; however, these can have a long-term effect to the environment as well as the society.
The climatic change that results from the issue of global warming affects biodiversity as well as aggravates desertification. Based on the fact that there is increased evapo-transpiration as well as a possible decrease in dry lands rainfall, dynamics in terms of the climatic condition may cause some increased desertification.
Trees or the vegetation on the surface of the universe assist in the absorption of the carbon dioxide that is emitted in the atmosphere and therefore as a result, this assists in managing the issue of global warming. Forests and other vegetation assists in the absorption of heat from the atmosphere which is also another positive thing in the management of the problem of global warming, however, a recent research led to a conclusion that the heating effect overshadows the ability of the trees to capture carbon dioxide. Among the trees that are known to absorb a large amount of heat are the dark greened trees and shrubs. There is also other cooling mechanism within the forests such as the pine tree that blows currents in between the trees and as a result the amount of absorbed heat is retained within the forest.
One of the possible solutions is the process of restoration of the soil ability in regard to the storage of carbon through to the promotion of the native grasses well as the vegetation as stated by some of the researchers Australia. The change in the use of land such as deforestation, degradation of soil and bush fires contribute to about twenty percent of the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to the global warming disaster and as a result, management practices that are aimed at reducing the emissions may play a major part in managing the issue of global warming and this will reduce the chances of the occurrence of the problem of desertification. Other ways of fixing the problem includes the issue of reforestation that is meant to manage the problem of deforestation. It is also worth noting that any other form of restoring vegetation on the phase of the earth would do much in managing the problem and as a result, the issue of the impacts of global warming in terms of desertification will be catered for. Another way that can assist is the governments involved investing in sensitizing campaigns that aim at educating the public on the causes of desertification, effects it has on the environment and the universe at large and way of avoiding it.
Melting tundra's methane release at the Poles
A tundra permafrost region and others located in the northern hemisphere have abundant Methane gas that has been trapped within these regions and at the bottom of the sea and this is according to John Atcheson, a geologist who wrote an article by the name Baltimore sun. Methane is a very strong greenhouse gas as compared to carbon and based on the fact that the warming at the arctic is proceeding at a very high rate, there is a big risk because the deposits of methane as well as other similar greenhouse gasses that are entrapped in the frozen regions may set into the atmosphere at very high rates inflicting mayhem with the computer replication of the phenomenon of global warming. An associate professor at Northwestern University, Gregory Ryskin commented that towards the termination of the Permian era, explosive large clouds of methane that were initially spellbound on water bodies may have wiped out of existence majority of marine and land animals and this was way back the dinosaurs' era. According to this Chemical Engineering specialist, it was most likely that methane was behind the previous disastrous modifications in the global climate in which almost a 100 % of marine species as well as more than 70% of the species of the land got in a fraction of a second as geologists would argue.
Though many would wonder on what can be done to manage the situation and reverse it, one of the possible way is to ensure that the minimum fossil fuels are burnt to ensure that the amount of greenhouse gases released to the atmosphere is very low and this will ensure that the global temperatures will not rise to an extent of melting the methane deposits. This can be effected through a number of ways and one of these is the 'carbon neutral' initiative and this should be followed by other initiatives aimed at trapping the carbon dioxide that is released in the air and this to be used in or stored in other forms. The use of hydrogen fuel to replace the petroleum products as fuel is another way in which one may be able to manage the problem though this calls for more research in regard to the production of the gas instead of the normal way of the combustion of the black stuff. The possible choices may include the direct-current electrolysis though inefficient, the production at the sea through solar hydrogen, metal catalysts use, the effective high-frequency-electric-current electrolysis, bacteria action (natural hydrogen) and ultraviolet light production. Another way of addressing this problem is investing on research methods that are aimed at establishing new and effective methods of reducing greenhouse emissions in the atmosphere.
Climate refugees or the Environmental refugees
As mentioned earlier, global warming leads to drought and eventual famine strikes the people of the affected region. It is worth noting that more than half of the death cases associated with malnutrition which accounts to about four million globally are African cases. The amazing thing is that any increase of temperature means an increased number of the people affected by famine. For example a two degrees Celsius increase means that the number will increase by between thirty to two hundred million worldwide. Across the globe, the global warming will segregate different regions in terms of the climatic conditions and as a result there will be the areas that will have abundant food and others with scarcity of food and as a result there ought to be movement of people as a result of the climatic conditions that results from the impact of the global warming and the people on the move are the ones who are referred to as the climatic refugees. It is estimated that the regions that will suffer from the scarcity of food is Africa and Asia despite the fact that the regions are highly reliant on Agricultural activities. As a result, the likelihood of occurrence of violence and conflict that is likely to result from the scarcity of the available resources is high and as a result, a great number of people are likely to be displaced on the basis of famine and scarcity of water. To confirm this, estimation by specialists from the World Bank indicated that about seven million people moved as a result of famine conditions in the sub-Saharan region of Africa as a result of the environmental factors and this is expected to worsen with the deterioration of the climatic conditions as a result of global warming.
The government of the mentioned areas that are likely to be affected by the climatic refugees should put in place some measures to be able to contain the devastating effects of the global warming as a result of the weather conditions. As stated earlier, the reason why the people under such regions are forced to move is to find some food and other basic needs. As a result, based on the fact that most of the governments are warned in regard to the issue of global warming, proper measures should be put in place to ensure that all the causes of global warming are reduced to the minimum. The governments should also ensure that there is enough food for its people incase in times when the food is not as plenty as in some other seasons. These can only be enhanced through strategic plans to cater for the welfare of the people whenever there is scarcity of food. The issue of the climatic refugees or the environmental refugees as they are sometimes called is a matter that should be given an international attention and just like the political refugees, these people should be accorded the attention and help that they deserve to be able to face the global warming monster in some kind of vitality.