The case study on Jakarta, Indonesia, blames the environmental degradation on the growing population of the country. The country is estimated to have a population of 13 million, and these people contribute significantly to depletion of resources and pollution of the water sources. For instance, it is indicated that the massive population has resulted to air pollution in the city because of the need to transport close to 2 million people to and from the city on a daily basis. The country’s lack of a public transport is also blamed for the massive traffic congestions that lead to air pollution. The escalating population is also blamed for water pollution in the city, as many of the human wastes are not treated, but are released directly into rivers that border the city. Thus, the water in the city is deemed polluted to the extent that it needs to be boiled before being used. Notably, the escalating population in the city is blamed for many of the problems, faced by the country, as it is indicated again that by 2007, groundwater in Jakarta had been depleted, and this was because of the need to meet the demands of the city.
In turn, this contributed to subsiding of many areas of the city, which resulted many people being affected by floods. The rise in number of squalor buildings within the cities is also blamed for the environmental problem. The case study reveals that slums proliferate, and the people responsible for these structures encroach on any space that they locate. In addition, the slum dwellers incorporate all types of materials in the construction of their structures, and this has an effect on the environment. Notably, the water problem in the city escalates because of increased population that the city cannot support and pollution, resulting from the poor sewerage system found in the slums.
Several long-term effects on the environment result from increased population and lack of public means of transport. Firstly, the air in the city will be polluted because everyone uses his or her own automobile for transport, which leads to traffic congestions and emissions into the air. Consequently, the rise in the levels of carbon dioxide in the environment will result to climate change, which affects the environment. The increase in population will eventually result to total depletion of resources. Notably, when the population increases, there is also an increased dependence on the environment and this means that there will be over exploitation of the environment.
This impacts greatly on the environment, as it becomes strained and unproductive in the end. It is also evident that the increased population contributes to the pollution of rivers. If the pollution of rivers by sewers, released into them directly without treatment, is continued, this will lead to the deaths of water creatures such as the fish and frogs. Another projected long-term effect on the environment concerns the lack of space for construction of recreational facilities like parks. This is because all the space, available in the city, will have being encroached for construction purposes. In turn, this promotes risks of earthquakes due to pressure, posed by the buildings. Another long-term effect is that the land’s sea level will lower. This means that most of the land will be prone to floods; thus, will not be suitable for any form of farming. Lastly, the soil will be affected and lose fertility utterly. This is blamed on dumping of inorganic matter, which does not, decompose easily and their continued stay on the soil messes with the soil processes; thus, reduces the fertility levels of soil. Notably, climate change in the area can bring many adverse effects such as droughts or floods, which affect the environment comprehensively.