Personal values are referred to as the defining principles in a person as an individual. These principles try to determine how a person will face the world and relate with people as required. They include; honesty, reliability, obedient, and trust. Personal values are our conviction concerning what we believe is very vital and desirable in our lives. A value is known to be a belief, a mission, or a philosophy, which is useful. Whether we are consciously aware of them or not, each and every person has a core set of personal values. Values can start from the commonplace like being hardworking,punctual,up to the more psychological like being self-reliant, having a concern for others and harmony of purpose (Onora, 1996). For instance, parents do their best to ensure that they raise their children in the best way possible. Psychologists also ensure that they provide services that are within their ability. They are supposed to maintain the highest standards of competence given the fact that their suggestions to the court may destruct the lives of others.Therefore, psychologists are only supposed to give services that are within their areas of training and qualification.
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Personal values are within our DNA. Many people have different values and ethical standards, which may have some similarities to ours. However, I believe that there are no people who are exactly alike. Individuals' values and ethics are instilled by one's culture, environment, and background. During our upbringing, there were traditional values that were very important in our lives. For example, the information on religion, family, unity, honesty, and education were reinforced at an early stage. We were educated on the importance of being obedient, and that every child was supposed to make his or her parents proud. Being from a family of eight sharing same set of parents, values, environment, and ethics, I learnt very early in my life about being diverse. We were meant to learn that religion was the most important thing in life. Therefore, my parents, the church, and commitment to prayers are the sources that helped shape my values.
The criteria and decision making factors that I use to revise my personal values today include setting goals. This is because the goals we set in our lives determine our outer expression of our personal values. Decision making is basically based upon our main values, even selecting our goals involves decision making. Personal values always determine how we perceive a particular situation. For instance, if a person values safety, he or she will face the situation investing for safety versus danger. While an individual who appreciates leisure is likely to have a different perspective on the same situation and will automatically check out for different kind of experiences. Personal values determine the results set and the decision making planned in order to achieve them. This therefore, means that decision making is designed to ensure that personal values are matched.
The implications of values for work as a human service professional
Human services are referred to as a profession developing responding to and focusing on the direction of human problems. It provides help to its clients within the area of their community and environment. The main important values considered at work places include individual worth and dignity, respect for people, valuing individuals' capacity to change, client self determination, providing individuals with chance to recognize their abilities, seeking to meet people's common human needs, seeking to provide individuals with adequate resources and services to enable them meet their basic needs, empowerment of the clients, ensuring equal opportunities, nondiscrimination, respect for diversity, commitment to social changes and social justice, confidentiality and privacy, and willingness to transmit professional knowledge and skills to others. Our personal values act as a guide that determines what is necessary, what we should do or refrain from doing. Social work professions feel a strong need to work for social justice because most of the issues social workers deal with are either directly or indirectly related to injustice. This shows that for social workers, their strong value base encourages being expectant for action and offers the rationale for these efforts.Therefore, other human service professionals also require members to be active participants at work places. Workers are encouraged to acknowledge their ethical responsibility to promote the general welfare of the society through action and advocacy.
Value as preferred outcomes for people focuses on the quality of life issues and the manner in which society should be organized to enable people achieve satisfaction. The society has the responsibility to offer its citizens with the opportunity to grow and develop, provide resources, and equal opportunities to participate in molding society so that each person is able to realize his or her full abilities in life.
Value as preferred instruments for dealing with people is another implication of value for work as a human service professional. This is mainly based on the way in which people need to be treated. Every person needs to be treated with respect and dignity, have adequate opportunity to determine the direction of their lives, should be motivated and assisted to interact with other people so as to create a society that is responsive to the needs of all people (Kimmel, 1988).
Ethical dilemma in relation to the ethical standards of human service professional
There are various dilemmas encountered within human service professional that require ethical explanation. Both the employer and the workers encounter dilemmas in organization. When an organization has individuals with diverse nationality, age, race, knowledge, skill, religion, and socioeconomic status, occurring of conflicts is very high. The specific ethical dilemma, in relation to ethical standards of human service professional, in which I would experience little difficulty due to a concordance between ethical practice and personal belief system, is the confidentiality and honesty dilemma. The belief that honesty and sincerity of a company's interests in a certain environment or education can affect the society and the clients views about that company. The manner in which the company's products affect the environment may be of great concern. Also the use of the product produced if it's harmful to the users may also be of much concern for example production of products such as tobacco. The process of making decision on the right product to be manufactured and how to do it without causing harm to environment and peoples also is not always clear.
The specific ethical dilemma, in relation to ethical standards of human service professional, in which I anticipate difficulty in ethical practice due a conflict or discordance, includes the authority dilemma. Managers are most of the time stubborn because they believe that their actions are the only ones in the best interest for the company and that they are according to the legal code of conduct in the company. Workers are never in position to disclose any information or secrets that lie behind their employer's behavior. The perspective of the workers in our organization is always in dilemma. There are some instances where the workers are not well versed with the work because the organizations beliefs and values are often kept as a secret and not revealed to the employees. To clear this dilemma, it's the manager's duty to ensure that goals and objectives of the organization are clearly stated to each employee in order to create a peaceful and healthy working environment.
Ethics is defined as the well designed standards that describe what human beings are supposed to do in terms of rights, obligations, and benefits to the community, and fairness. These are those standards that make some to refrain from engaging in wrong activities like rape, commiting murder, or stealing. Ethical standards also involve those that encompass virtues of honesty, loyalty, and obedient. They involve standards that relate to human rights such as right to privacy, right to life and freedom of speech. There are various types of ethics and these include, normative ethics, which is also referred to as the moral theory which focuses on the reasons that make people to act either in the right or the wrong way. Meta-ethics aims at understanding the manner of ethical properties, attitude, and statements. Consequentialism ethics refers to ethical standards, which hold to the view that the consequences of a certain action form the ground for any valid moral judgment concerning that action.
General ethical principles: The use of psychological tests in the courtroom
Psychological tests and testing have a long time history and a substantial data base, while the use of psychological tests to explain or demonstrate the opinion of the expert in the courtroom has a more checkered history (Delbert,2002). The use of this test to offer support to expert's opinion and testimony ranges meritorious to appropriate to questionable. Meaning that it relates to the defendant's competence, personal injury problems, and the status and needs of the children. Therefore the psychologist who uses tests as a support to their opinion when testifying as experts are duty bound to qualify them for this role and to ensure that they abide by well defined standards.
This is the practice which involves determining whether a person is lying. Body activities which are not easily managed by the conscious mind are compared under circumstances that are not the same. The lie detection exercise involves asking of the topic control questions where the answers are known to the examiner and making comparisons with the questions where the responses are not known. Researchers argue that lie detector is not scientifically valid because it is not a procedure performed scientifically. Lie detector thus, is mainly employed by the police to determine whether a person is testifying the truth. It involves the use of polygraph which is an electronic machine that measures if there are any changes in different body parts to assess if an individual is saying the truth. It is the most accurate and efficient measure to be used.
Boundaries of competence
The Association for Applied Sport Psychology is a dedicated program that is involved in the development of the field of sports psychology. The members of this program highly maintain the highest competence in their work. They try to realize the boundaries of their professional competencies and the limitations of their expertise. They have the knowledge connected to the services they offer and they recognize the necessity for the continuing education. They offer only those services that they are trained, well conversed with, and the techniques which they are qualified by training and experienced on. They recognize the fact that the competencies needed in serving, educating, or studying the groups of people have different distinctive characteristics of those groups. However, in area where professional standards do not exist yet, members of the Association for Applied Sport Psychology practice keenly the judgment and take appropriate precautions to defend the welfare of those with whom they work for.
Principle of integrity
Members of Association for Applied Sport Psychology focus on promoting integrity in the science, providing education, and exercising their profession. These members are most of the time honest and fair when explaining their qualifications, services, goods, research or teaching. They ensure that they are honest in their statements and that they are no room for misleading and deceptive words. They define to the relevant parties the roles and duties they are dealing with and that they function properly and in accordance with those roles and obligations. The members of this association always try to avoid any bad and potentially harmful relationships.
The principle of sexual harassment
Association for Applied Sport Psychology motivates other people to follow their ethics code. They are taught that in any circumstances, other ethical and legal codes can be applied to them through other public bodies. The philosophy that underlies sexual harassment in the current world is very clear and obvious to many people that every woman has the right to earn a living, get higher education and pursue a career without being harassed sexually by her managers or co-workers.
The principle of human difference
It is recognized in the Association for Applied Sport Psychology that differences of age, gender, race, nationality, and religion affect greatly the professional work.Therefore, working with specific groups of people ensures that necessary skills are developed which are competent with these group.
The legal definition of insanity
An individual is assumed to be insane and not responsible for his criminal actions, if at the time of such action, was a result of severe mental disease or defect thus making him not able to value nature and the quality or the wrongfulness of his behavior. This is because the act that is done intentionally is an important part of most offenses, and an individual who is insane is not able to commit a crime willfully. The person however has the duty to prove the defense of insanity by being clear having convincing evident to the court.
Personal values are the defining principles in a person as an individual. These principles try to determine how a person will face the world and relate with people as required. Personal values are what we believe to be right or wrong and they are very important in human service professionals.