Health is the most important thing in people`s lives. Humanity cannot live, work and develop without health. Most of the companies make attempts to protect consumers nowadays. They organize summits and conferences, write articles and make advertisements on top-questions of health. There are three main factors for chronic diseases: unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco. The World Health Organization restricts the companies that are specialized on production of such goods in their rights on the market.
Firstly, chronic diseases can be considered in two different ways: changeover of the globalization process in late 1980s and duration of the chronicity model. The question of chronic diseases had remained unsolved until the 21st century, but in September 2011 the UN Summit on Non-communicable Diseases suggested the plan for the treatment of non – communicable diseases (Labonte, 2011).
Secondly, policy space is used for characterizing of “the freedom, mechanism and scope”, that governing institutions provide for regional and local authorities and companies in order to freely execute their policies (Labonte, 2011). The question of food production and it`s negative effect on people`s health is one of the key questions that influence the spread of chronic illnesses. Trade treaties provide appropriate conditions for reducing trade barriers with non-discriminatory measures and national treatment (Labonte, 2011).When the trade barriers are unsteady, it is very easy to find loopholes for importing new goods in various spheres of life. When the product is harmful, consumers buy it less and the producer gets less income. Though when food is advertised, it attracts people of different age brackets, especially youth. When economic growth takes place, differences in financial situation of social classes increase and it leads to the expansion of lower classes and of the chronic diseases. It is unprofitable for trade food corporations to limit national or international food producing companies in procurements only because of harmful effect of some products (Labonte, 2011).
Furthermore, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have a wide access to the developing countries, where labor force is cheap; especially children are involved in the process of reaping harvest. Afterwards, the number of smokers among youth increases in a great rate. TTCs have the possibility to move into low-income countries through “direct investments” and purchase domestic companies (Labonte, 2011). The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) attempts to strengthen the influence of policy space on the national level through global agreements in tobacco control policies (Labonte, 2011). Each member of World Health Organization (WHO) should maintain national policy space by maintaining and reducing access of harmful products on the national level (Labonte, 2011). Nevertheless, these actions are underproductive as many countries are not going to ratify FCTC agreement, for example, the USA. Also the question of personal property provides unlimited rights for tobacco producing companies (for example, bilateral investment treaties), so overall FCTC cannot fully influence tobacco producing companies.
There are four ways of chronicity under influence of alcohol: affordability, decreasing of alcohol control actions, underground trade of alcohol, free access (Labonte, 2011). The problem of alcohol distribution is that it can be sold like any other good, and the producers get high incomes in alcohol sphere. Institutions of public health obtain great benefits by alcohol distribution. Implementation of prohibition in the country does not usually influence alcohol trade, because underground trade is well organized all over the world.
There is a good selection of peer-reviewed journals in the field of global health, among them are: Journal of Global Health, Global Public Health, International Health, the International Journal of Public Health (WHO), Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, student journal – Stanford Service in Global Health, Global Journal of Health Science by Canadian Center of Science and Education, World – the Internet Newspaper. All of them report on the most dangerous diseases over the world and on the methods of government`s preventing them, on the achievements in global health sphere and creating of new social programs.
Karl Hofman wrote an article on achievements in Global Health in 2011. According to this article there were ten most important achievements in 2011 in the USA: the government avoided major cuts in foreign aid budgets; reducing of HIV dissemination by treatment; fall of malaria deaths all over the world; effective search in creating medicine for malaria; actions in pneumonia prevention and treatment; local and national sectors have united to promote hygiene and clean water in the USA and other achievements (Hofman, 2011).
The governments of Europe and the USA follow the UN Millennium Development Goals according to which the governments should allocate not less currency from the state budget for health protection of the population (Hofman, 2011).
Countries of Europe and the USA got an access to insecticide-treated mosquito nets, which helped to prevent the diffusion of malaria. Pneumococcal vaccine was created and tested on children. After the testing, American scientists acknowledged the effectiveness of medicine (Hofman, 2011). Melinda Gates Foundation “WASH for life” in association with the U.S. Agency for International Development apportioned $17 million to improve the hygiene and index of cleanness of water (Hofman, 2011).
To sum up, the problem of tobacco, alcohol and harmful production still exists. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) cannot influence companies specialized on tobacco production because of existence of investment treaties that protect the rights of producers. Alcohol and harmful food industry stabilize positive economic effects; because of that, national and local forces are not eager to reduce the production of these industries. If the international health protecting organizations unite, the negative effect of tobacco, alcohol and harmful food will be reduced. The achievements in Global Health Protection will be reached, as it was reported in the article by Karl Hofman.
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