Health Promotion, Disease Prevention, and Disease Management
Health promotion is described as the process where people are enabled to exert the control over determinants of their health and by these there is improvement in their health. People here are enabled to take action. On the other hand we can define disease prevention as the branch of medicine that mostly focuses on prevention of diseases in communities and individuals. Lastly the disease management is the approach to the healthcare educates patients on how to manage any chronic disease and the responsibility on taking care to avoid any type of potential disaster and exacerbation or even worsening their health status (Powell, 1983).
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Describe the impact of future trends such as information and technologies, and ethical issues involved related to changes.
The gap between the developed and the developing world that exists in information is the cause of the lack of eradication of some of the diseases in the world today. Investment in the information and communication technologies in the health sector in Africa will complement the provision of basic health services (Powell, 1983). By replacing the traditional paper based operations with electronic means will lead to reduced costs and effectiveness in the delivery of health services. This will ensure that more people will be able to access the required health services and provisions. Also the making of the health sector more electronic will lead to there being no delays in the various processes in the health sector. This is because for example when one makes an order for a hospital they will be able to receive the goods on time as there is no time consuming paperwork(Lovejoy, 2007).
Future trends in technology will lead to positive changes in the health sector greatly. So far they have lead to the emergence of machines like X-rays, Cat scans and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). These machines assist the doctors to be able to see into the human body and to be able to identify the problem one is suffering from. Future trends in it will lead to the health sector being able to do great acts in the future where they may be able to restore feeling to ones paralyzed body through mechanics and connection of nerve endings. Changes in the ethical issues may however lead to confusion and separation among people in the future (Lovejoy, 2007). This is because not all people's ethics and moral codes can be the same everywhere and this will lead to conflicts between different sections of the health sector. This may be translated into conflicts among families, for example when trying to decide whether a family member should be continued on life support or not (Powell, 1983).
Describe the impact of new technologies on providing patient care for this population to include ethics related to technology (provide literature to support the use of information and technologies).
Health care technologies are currently being employed to extend the human life course, to reduce pain, to reduce the risk to diseases and improve the quality of ones life. Health technologies are considered as drugs, biologics, devices and diagnostic tests. Drugs are proving patient care in that they are being used to treat diseases, to prevent diseases and to stabilize conditions. These drugs include antibiotics, inhibitors, aspirin, antibodies and many others (Belar, 1995). The biologics are being used in gene therapy, which are an experimental technique that uses genes to treat diseases by probably introducing a new gene or by replacing a mutated gene, or inactivating a mutated gene. New devices like pacemakers are being used in patient care to help them cope with issues of weak hearts and hearts that need help to function properly. In the past such people would have had there lifespan greatly reduced. Some other devices like laser machines that can be used to correct eyesight and to eradicate malignant tumors that cause cancer.
Diagnostic tests have also been used to solve some questions that previously would have gone unanswered. For example DNA, where one can be identified as to whom they are related to. These technologies can be used to prevent diseases for example through immunization and chemoprevention against cancer. Ethics related to technology can sometimes lack a fine line as to when the technology is yours to use as you please and when it is harmful to others. Some of the technology may be considered as stolen from some one else especially in the case of research where the technology has not yet made its debut in the market. The ethics related to technology will mostly come about as patent rights and copyrights which give a period to be the only producer of the good before any other person is allowed to produce it (Belar, 1995).
Develop future strategies for practice change to improve patient outcomes resulting from the use of information systems and technologies related to access, cost, quality, and efficiency.
The health of a person in the future cannot properly be documented or expected how it will turn over. This is why there are organizations like future health strategies that have introduced a new service that will fill the gap in our system for long term care. It allows the patient to produce an interactive video document which will be recorded via an interview and it can be referred to in the future by the family members or by those who are going to be providing the care. This future health strategy provides a service that manages ones personal history with technology (Belar, 1995).
It had been noticed that despite the best intentions of care givers they sometimes cannot provide to their best due to the inability of the patient to express himself, his wants and his desires. This technology efficiently captures ones lifestyle and the pattern of living that the person has developed and this will lead to efficient services to the individual. The future health strategies address the rather costly goal of finding out ones life behavior and preferences through the interactive framework. It will allow inclusion of medial history, life patterns and other relative and important matters in one past which will lead to creation of an important bridge or connection to ones medical history (Crane,1986).
These strategies are also more costly than previous methods of finding out ones history and this will therefore lead to many more people being able to access this service. These strategies will improve the quality of the patient outcomes because of the readily available information. Improved quality of services will create not only a better life for that individual but also a better life for the community at large. Since this information is archived it may be stored safely for many year or generations and still be possible to retrieve easily and also no be prone to destruction (Powell, 1983).
Address future ethical issues in providing care related to safety, informed consent, privacy, and confidentiality (for example, HIPAA, information systems, or paperless clinical records) rising cost, rationing health care, health care reform, access to care, and so on.
Ethics is defined as the rules and standards governing the conduct of a person or the member of a profession. Medical ethics will be defined as a system of moral principles that are applied in the medical profession (Crane, 1986). Some of these ethics will involve matter like one cannot kill a patient by way of his actions or may face time in prison and have his license revoked. It also has rules such as doctor- patient confidentiality which is there to protect whatever the patient says to the doctor and to be maintained as private. However in this new day and age where information can be shared online and to various people for many different reasons, ethics will need to evolve with the new day and age (Crane, 1986).
A good example of how the ethics are changing with the times is the HIPPA which stands for the Health Insurance and Portability and Accountability Act. This was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1986. This act covers the workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs. The standards in this act are meant to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the nation's health care system by widespread use of electronic data interchange. This wide spread use of the data interchange may lead to the breach of the confidentiality clause among the patients and their doctors (Crane, 1986).
Another ethical issue that may occur in the future would be the nature of informed consent. Informed consent will be referred to as the process by which a patient is fully informed about all the concerns of his or her condition and are in a position to make and participate in the choices about their health. The patient is able to direct that which will happen to his or her body. The goal of informed consent is that the patient be an informed participant in his own health care, however a generally accepted informed consent must have several characteristics and major areas covered. The areas to be covered must be the nature of the procedure, the relevant risks, benefits and uncertainties, assessment of the patient understanding and reasonable alternatives to the proposed intervention (Roudilis, 1994).
For the patient consent to be valid the patient must be considered competent enough to make the decision at hand. His consent must also be voluntary. This is to mean that he was not coerced into making the decision or providing his consent. Consent can also not be given by an individual who is below 18 years of age. Under certain circumstances, there are exceptions to the informed consent rule (Roudilis, 1994). The most common exceptions are: an emergency in which medical care is needed immediately to prevent serious or irreversible harm and incompetence in which someone is unable to give permission (or to refuse permission) for testing or treatment.
Develop future strategies for practice change to improve patient outcomes and education for this patient population based on improving health promotion, disease prevention, and disease management.
Health education for the increasing masses of people is a very important and required activity for people everywhere. Health education is the process of continually informing people how to achieve good health and to motivate them to maintain good and healthy habits. In the United States about forty states require the teaching of health education. A comprehensive health education curriculum consists of planned learning experiences which will help students achieve desirable attitudes and practices related to critical health issues. The purpose of health education is to positively influence the behavior of individuals so that they life and working conditions are positive influences on their health (Lovejoy, 2007).
Once health education is provided, it may encourage people to specialize in the health education and train in it as professions. This may involve sectors like nursing, social work, physical therapy, medicine and many others. Another reason to provide health education to the public is so as to ensure that they are well informed on how to handle certain emergencies and also so that they may be able to know and comprehend the importance of some of the behaviors that they have and how it affects them negatively or positively(Powell, 1983).
Health education also focuses on prevention of diseases before they occur and this will lead to reduction of costs especially financially that the individuals or families have to spend on medical treatment. Health education will also reduce premature deaths that once rocked our country (Lovejoy, 2007). It will also improve the health status of all and also enhance the quality of life. Education in this sector will also lead to people learning how to manage their disease that will help in prolonging the life of the individual and reduce the risk of spreading it to other people if one is aware how to manage themselves.
To conclude, the health sector is an extremely important sector in the functions of a state or country or family. For this reason any and all investments in it are important markers to providing a better tomorrow for all our people.