Free «Neurological Processes» Essay Sample

Neurological processes are processes that take place within the nervous system. Study of the neurological processes gives an insight on how the human brain functions following exposure to different activities. The study of the human brain was not easy in the past due to the challenge of getting good and advanced equipments. However, in the recent years, this has been made possible with advancement in technology as more sophisticated equipments are readily available. Magnetic resonance technique is one of the most utilized techniques of studying the human mind (Horton, 1999).

Neurological process has a lot influence on the way a person behaves. In fact, if it were not for these processes, human beings would not be able to work on most of their activities effectively. Research has shown that when some neurological processes are impaired, human beings are unable to carry out their normal functions as they are supposed to. Impairment of any neurological process may have a negative effect on a person. Some people may have abnormal development and may be even mentally challenged. Most of persons with neurological disorders are unable to communicate with others effectively. This is because they are unable to talk fluently as some of the neurological processes are impaired.

Post synaptic potentials are actions which may excite or inhibit a postsynaptic cell in the neuromuscular junction. These two actions are based on whether they cause action potential in the postsynaptic cell or not. If the PSPs increase the postsynaptic potential, then the phase is known as excitatory postsynaptic. These cells receive inputs from both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. The two synapses work on a similar mechanism. However, there is one major difference; the ion channels can be opened or closed depending on the synapse, either excitatory or inhibitory. Another major difference is the fact that postsynaptic excitatory synapse has reversal potential positive than action potential threshold whereas the polysynaptic inhibitory synapse has reversal potential more negative than action potential threshold. The major role of the two synapses is to regulate flow of ions in and out of the postsynaptic cells (Sinauer Associates, 2001).

Neurotransmitters are substances in the brain that facilitate the movement of impulses throughout the brain and the whole body. The three main types of substances that act as neurotransmitters in the brain are Amino acids, for instance GABA, glutamic acid, glycine, aspartic acid and peptides for instance vasopressin, neurotensin and somatostatin and monoamines for instance dopamine, norepinephrine & serotonin and acetylcholine. However, there are those neurotransmitters that are more functional than others. Glutamic, GABA, acetylcholine and monoamines. Monoamines and acetylcholine are however known to perform specialized modulating functions which are confined to precise structures. There are many brain transmitters in the brain neurotransmitters. Transmitters facilitate many functions of the brain especially in the transmission of impulses. GABA and Glutamic acid are two transmitters that have antagonistic functions; glutamic acid is an excitatory while GABA is a primary inhibitor (Best, n.d).

Glutamic acid is the most common neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is always an excitatory owing to its uncomplicated receptors that amplify the flow of positively charged ions by opening up the ions channels. Glutamate stimulation can however be terminated by chloride independent Gamma Amino Glutamic Acid (GABA) is the second common neurotransmitter and is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter and accounts for about 30 to 40 % of all the synapses. It is mostly concentrated in the hypothalamus. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter found in the peripheral nervous system.


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