Traumatic Brain Injury is an injury of the brain that is caused by a blow or a nudge to the head. It can also be termed as a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. It has been pointed out as one of the major causes of death and disability in the larger perspective of the world. TBI has several causes that make it to be more prevalent among children and young adults. TBI can be classified ranging from mild to severe conditions which can lead to death so easily (Coetzer, 2006). Statistics have shown that in the United States, after every 11 minutes a child has a brain injury that results to permanent disabilities. This has been estimated to take a total of 30,000 children per year. In order to examine about the whole issue of TBI, it is prerequisite to note its main causes, the preventive measures and the effects it has to the child, schools, family and the society at large. Additionally, the costs related to TBI will be brought into view and conclusions drawn.
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In connection to the above facts concerning Traumatic Brain Injuries, several causes can be cited. As such, they involve falls, motor-vehicle crashes, struck by events, and assaults. Among the above mentioned causes of TBI, the three main and leading causes are falls, motor-vehicle-traffic crashes and struck by or against events. So to speak, falls are common among children of the age of years up to four years of age. In this sense, the other cause is the motor-vehicle –traffic crashes which lead to a great number of hospitalizations which are TBI related (Jallo & Loftus, 2009, p.16). At the same time, it has been noted in the past that this cause in most cases affects adolescents of the age bracket 15 to 19. The other major cause has been pointed out to be the struck by events or against events. It involves collision with moving objects or stationary ones. In the United States a large number of TBI cases are caused by sports and recreation but they are in most cases the mild type. In all these cases, it is clear that the three causes are major causes of TBI.
However, there are proactive measures that can be taken in order to prevent the occurrence of TBI through these means. For instance, one of the proactive measures that can be taken in the cases of falls is a good care to be given as well as the attention given to the children below four years of age. The kind of child care provided should involve safety facilities for the children games and sports. This is for the reason that most of the children diagnosed with TBI happen to have get injured when engaged in games that require safety. Mothers should be careful as they bring up the children since the children are so much vulnerable to falls at this age below four years (Lovell, 2004). Accordingly, falls can be minimized by installation of such things like garb bars commonly in bathrooms and in the stairways having handrails. Also, one should remove tripping hazards inclusive of throw rugs and installation of safety windows. In the playgrounds of children, shock absorbers such as sand may prevent head injuries during their games. Since children are the main focus in this case, more details will be only based on them.
On the other hand, motor-vehicle –traffic crashes which cause TBI as the second major cause have several proactive measures that can be taken. In this case, the best proactive measure that can prevent TBI is the police making sure that traffic laws are enforced and fully adhered to. This is inclusive of the use of safety belts in vehicles and the over speeding of vehicles been avoided. Again, careless driving should not be allowed. In this connection, transport network should be as such that it can minimize accidents. In addition, safety education programs can so much contribute to the reduction of accidents leading to low incidents of TBI.
TBI has a lot of effects which range from physical, cognitive, behavioral and emotional. Nevertheless, the result may be permanent disability or death. Treatment sometimes may work and in severe conditions death is the only option. Effects of TBI are not only felt by the child who can be completely disabled or may end up dying but there others who feel the effects. They include people like the family which so much cares for the child, the family has the burden of offering the long term care to the child and the medical care required. This makes the family to be emotionally, socially and economically affected (Lovell, 2004). Additionally, the effects may extend to the schools whereby due to the effects of TBI, the child may be not able to understand while being taught and this may be a limitation to the school dealing with such children.
Mental disability can prove to be a great limitation to teachers while teaching the children for the reason that the child cannot reason normally as other kids or children do. In the same line of thought, TBI amongst children may affect a great deal of the society. This is due to the fact that children make for the future generation. If it happens that they are mentally disabled or in other cases some dying, the result is that the society may be limited in what becomes of its future. Children with TBI have problems while learning. This is because in most cases they have a poor memory; they have difficulties in writing and reading. They are emotionally affected and they may be experiencing mood swings and denial as well. Caregiver’s burden and stress is an effect that may lead to many families being dysfunctional and others being stressed to the point of death (Coetzer, 2006).
Having highlighted the causes, preventive measures and effects of TBI among children in particular, the costs related to TBI can be brought into view. The costs related to TBI are high as they range from the costs of time and finances. The cost of treatments and provision of care are so high as for the hospitalizations, associated fatalities and acute care and rehabilitation of the TBI victims. Other costs include indirect costs to families and society in times of the work time used, caregivers, the progression of the family and the costs of social amenities.
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