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Free «Continuity and Change in Human Development» Essay Sample


The adolescent period is the time of change and development of a child to adulthood stage of life. This is the period which covers the youths aged eight years to sixteen years of age. They are mainly under a lot of psychological developments and challenges as they cope up with the environment and what happens in their bodies. It is the development period which indicates the high chances of exposure of the youths to challenges such as treatment of diseases and enhancing their health status.

Question one


The challenges which are experienced by the adolescent include the biological and sexual maturation.  The adolescent always strive to attain them irrespective of the implications surrounding it. The adolescent also attain the personal identity in their lives. There is a challenge of being involved in intimate sex with a fellow age mate who is not by all means suitable. There is also the challenge of instituting independence and self-sufficiency within the socio-cultural perspective.

Developmental tasks

The adolescent also undergo the development of negotiating teenage years and the accomplishment of the growth. There is also the adoption of the sexual body appearances and the increased developments of cognitive expertise; this also involves the conceptual thoughts abilities. There is also the absolute sense of personal and sexual recognition and the establishment of an emotional, individual, and the monetary sovereignty from their family.

In early adolescents, there are various development tasks through the stages such as the early adolescent, mid-adolescents and finally through the late adolescents. In early adolescents, the psychological development tasks involve the in-depth thinking with adequate premature moral conceptions. There is also the reassessment of the appearances of the body. The concept of the homosexuality also is one of the developmental tasks which are highly factored in by the youths on their potential.

In the mid-adolescence, conceptual thoughts are one of the developmental tasks which are undertaken as it portraying the identity of an individual as the 'bullet proof'. The verbal capabilities are enhanced and there is the promotion of the recognition of the laws with ethics. There is also the onset of the appreciation of religion and the politics.

In late adolescence, there is complex conceptual thinking with the recognition of the differences that exist among laws with the morality as one of the developmental tasks. There is the enhancement of the pulse control besides the further growth in the individual identification. The concept of the politics and the religion is greatly enhanced with rejection or acceptance (Brinthaupt & Lipka, 2002).

All these developmental tasks are very important in the continuity of the changes which are experienced in the human development especially to the adolescence. This level of human development is crucial in determining the future specs of an individual once he/she is an adult. The way one is affected by these developmental tasks is exactly how such an individual will responds to the actions and regulations which are encountered in the society.

Question 2

Social structures are defined as patterned social planning which compose the larger society as a whole and also determine to a given extent the dealings of individuals socialized in that civilization. Social institutions are complex social that's replicate themselves as family government health centers and so forth.


Family differentiation plays a role in the problems encountered by the adolescents as well as their psychological development. The family being the place where all individuals are nurtured into responsible citizens, it plays a critical role in shaping the behaviors of the adolescents. This stage is very delicate and therefore parents should be careful on how they handle children at this stage so that they do not become rebellious and irresponsible. On this note parents should develop measures of handling this stage. This varies from reasonable punishment to counseling. Children who are nurtured well in this stage develop to be very substantive adults who know how to control their emotions. They also are able to counsel others who are undergoing this stage. In most cases you find that children who are rebellious and irresponsible are those who were not well nurtured during this stage.


Matters of faith greatly matter all over the world. This is not withstanding which level of human development one is. Religion basically deals with ideas that surpass each day understanding. Common sense or scientific discipline cannot therefore confirm or condemn religious doctrine. It encourages the adolescent to look at life in an optimistic way, by hoping for a better world to come and reducing the shared problems of their humanity. . A connection exists between religion and adolescent actions, such as sex, felony, and the media's effect on adolescents. Several decades of social scientific studies have shown that religion is often a factor in the lives of adolescents, influencing their attitudes and their conduct in ways that are universally viewed as affirmative and constructive.

Religious institutions such as the church and the mosque organize forums for the adolescents to train them on how they can handle certain feelings in their bodies which are associated with this stage. It is a perfect substitute to the family since some the issues parents consider them very sensitive and reprehensible to discuss with the adolescent kids. 


Education also plays an enormous role in the development of adolescents. They train and educate teens by offering them informative topics such as sex, drug abuse and high risk behaviors. They can also organize for the troubled teens camps where the adolescents discuss problems affecting them as a group. Teachers just like the church leaders are in a better position to inform the adolescents the sensitive topics that their parents cannot. These topics particularly involve the changes that are occurring in their bodies.                                         


For minority adolescents, their ethnicity can play an important role in their self development ethnic and tribal attitudes among children appear to crystallize by about 10 years of age, which highlights the value of examining the role of ethnicity in the advancement of early adolescents. Most of the examination related to ethnicity in adolescence has focused on the attitudes of ethnic minority. The adolescents have also geared themselves toward tribal groups other than their own, particularly related to stereotyping, chauvinism, and unfairness. Adolescents articulate obligation without going through the duration of discovery. Their dedication typically reflects parental ideas and expectations and is not consequential from self-choice and investigation. Identity diffusion is characterized by the absence of both discovery and obligation. For adolescents in this status, there is a lack of legitimate uneasiness about identity issues (Eriksson, 2002).

Social class

Social class gradients are there in some aspects of adolescents' health. Teens get satisfied in ones health when they observe that they are from better families, having higher school grades and being best in health profiles. These are significantly and progressively greater as social class rise and vice versa. It can therefore be concluded that social class influences adolescents in that the higher the social class the more secure the adolescents feel as manifested in the health status.

Question 3

Adolescents are restricted by peer culture. People in this kind of settings appear to stick to and act according to certain social rules and behavioral habit. They tend to share a mutual understanding of actions and norms (Cobs, 2003). In normal circumstances, adolescents spare time with their peers than with younger children or adults.  In another case there is a religion which has an impact in the lives of adolescents. The work of religion is to encourage people, look expectantly to better tomorrow, thereby reducing social problems that they have. Therefore, there is a link between religion and adolescent behavior in matters of sex and misconduct. Different studies have depicted that religion acts like a factor in the lives of adolescents. It is a factor because it has impacts in their lives by controlling their attitudes and actions in ways that are seen as affirmative and productive (Cobs, 2003).  Researchers say that those adolescents who are very active in religious activities do not suffer from depression because they are provided with social support and a sense of belonging. Adolescents are given hand by religion to rejoice their awesome power of their own society.

This stage of development is portrayed by the surfacing of crowds as an important social context of improvement. It is viewed like a departure from a peer culture of young children which is defined by two people and small group relationships. Adolescents have increased contact with peers of the opposite sex (Cobs, 2003). They have a tendency of being in cherished relationships which can be in form of friendships or romantic relationships for example, dating. Studies show that adolescents, who are brought up lack peer relations, result to poor mental health in later stages of life.

Race and ethnicity is one of the constituent of adolescent center when describing oneself and one's peer in terms of huge social groupings. Most of the adolescents chat so as to give or receive information relating to each one's racial and cultural distinctiveness.

Gender norms go hand in hand with adolescents. These gender norms can place girls at jeopardy of sexual hostility, including rape or household violence. In other cases, some societies lay higher worth on males than females. If an adolescent girl becomes pregnant he may be expelled from school. In the stages of developments extended kinship relationship offers a valuable support to adolescents.  Holding of Kinship revealed undeviating associations with teen results especially in work, school where it was partially mediated by the parent. In terms of kinship social support that, mothers or in other words female guardians have a positive relation with their adolescents regarding their psychological well being, maternal well being, control, monitoring their behavior. Family life relationship affects human development from infancy to adulthood.

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Question four

Interdisciplinary understanding

Adolescent is the final step to being an adult in the society. This is the step which determines the abilities of an individual to cope well with all the surrounding and its events. There is need for one to appropriately fit into the system of live as well as developing appropriately. The adolescent are very sensitive to all the developments and an in-depth undertaking is very crucial to increasing once abilities on the psychological, sociological and anthropological perspective.

The issue which needs to be appropriately sorted out includes the future line of occupation and the families which the adolescent is contemplating initiating within a couple or so years. One needs to initiate being independent in making decisions which fits his or her own interest and abilities. This involves the ability to make decisions which revolve around their lives such as the ability to purchase whatever they want and on their social life; they also decide who to be their acquaintance. This also should be taken by the parents positive that they can at all times extend their hands in assisting them whenever it is required without much influence on their development. The adolescent should be left alone to be educated by whatever they do so that they make appropriate and meaningful decisions (Arnett, 2004). There is need for the adolescent to next to the adults who will be their model. This should be both sexes i.e. male and female who should give appropriate guidance to the adolescent in all the sociological, anthropological and psychological decisions.

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The adolescent can learn from their positive models acts such as the repairing of a car, cooking, researching, and ideas on how to apply some learnt principles in their action part of life (Shaffer, 2008). The adolescent in most times would desire being all by himself/herself fantasizing about their future. This is very important to them as they have a desire which they look up into. They picture themselves being somebody in future given that the positive models do impact their lives appropriately hence the interdisciplinary understanding is further enhanced. The church, school, family, work, ethnicity and other social structures in the society do influences the actions and understanding of the adolescent. There should be appropriate link between them and the development of the adolescent. This ensures that they are not left behind in the matters which relates to their well being in the context of being upright.

The approach which needs to be utilized should be appropriate so as to increase the chances of the adolescence being well equipped with the techniques which fits their way of life. The main self and identity demands of the adolescent should be highly incorporated which establishes their sociological, psychological and anthropological perspectives. There should be in-depth understanding of the self and identity. Designing of interventions also is very important since it promotes the appropriate intervention which encourages development and adjustment.


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