Michael E. Levin. Feminism & Freedom. Transaction Publishers, 1987
In this book, the author combines philosophical rigidity with comprehensive knowledge of a broad range of subjects. Michael Levin presents a careful assessment of feminism as both a theory and as a producer of social policy. Levin in his book challenges feminists thinking on innate sex differences have no impact with the basic structure of society. He proved this by taking examples from natural scenario. He took a list of tasks performed by labors and divided it horizontally between females and males, his study proved that most of the domestic tasks are handled by women, whereas man does everything else. He then distributed the tasks vertically into role wise and found men handles all the top most positions in society and women works as their subordinates. This study clearly indicated the impact of inmate sex difference in the society. He then took another example related to parenting which itself proves the difference in sex inequality. Children attachment to parent itself clarifies the importance of inmate sex difference. Research about speaking habits also proves that parents address male and female babies in different ways. Both the examples described above significantly proves that feminist statement about inmate sex difference has no impact on social structure does not hold.
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Catharine A. MacKinnon, Feminism Unmodified: Discourses on Life and Law. Harvard University Press, 1987
The writer MacKinnon is a well-known feminist and legal researcher. In her book Feminism unmodified, she describes about sexual politics and law. The content of this book was originally given as speeches, which was later carefully noted down to a book by the author without losing its originality. MacKinnon says treating gender as same and difference as virtually is what theory and law have done, but in reality it covers up the actual fact about gender difference. However she tries to reveal male dominance over female in the current political system. The author describes this by taking couple of examples, she says, a study conducted in US proves that about 4.5 percent of all women are victims of sexual harassment by their father, and about 12 percent by other male family members and adding all these about 43 percent are sexually harassed before they cross 18 years; about 85 percent working women had sexual abuse at sometime. MacKinnon also took another example to explain male dominance, in which she pulled a report which contains list of people murdered by their partner and this study showed that about 60 to 70 percent of women are murdered by their male partners but the same is not true for murdered men. Based on the above studies, author conclude that male is always dominant than females. However he also states all that the man do not have equal access to all male power, nor can they fully replace women’s stand point. The above sentences by MacKinnon clearly indicate male dominance over female.
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