The Government of China does not accept the capacity of the Committee against Torture, as it is in article 20 of the Torture Convention Article, where the Committee is empowered to investigate allegations of systematic torture. Moreover, the Government of China does not consider itself cornered by the first paragraph of article 30 of the Convention, which establishes optional arbitration mechanisms for the parties. Many countries are parties of the Convention against Torture, despite the fact that the act of torture is still practiced in many of them. Recently, torture has become an activity that is politically intolerable, and cannot be openly protected by any country. China has held in reserve on Article 20 in the investigative purpose of the Committee against Torture (C.A.T.), and on Article 30 in the first paragraph pertaining the individual grievances and arbitration power of the Committee against Torture.
The relationship between Committee against Torture and the government of China is basically through the 19th Article of the Torture Convention, which obliges a government party to provide a full report regarding the state of torture in the particular nation. During the World Conference on Human Rights in the year 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action was approved by the legislatures of 171 countries. One of the most fundamental declarations is evident in the following line: “all human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated”. In addition, conclusions by the world conference asserted that “one of the most atrocious violations against human dignity is the act of torture, the result of which destroys the dignity and impairs the capability of victims to continue their lives and their activities”.
The Convention has enforced the responsibility upon a nation to take “effective, legislative, administrative, judicial and other measures to prevent torture”, as clearly stated in Article 1. China presented its first report on the Torture Convention in 1989. This was trailed up with an extra report in the year 1992, the report on the second period in 1995, and third episodic report in 1999.
The third article of the CAT is becoming more and more significant. It states that “no state party shall expel, return or extradite a person to another state where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being subjected to torture”. This is, perhaps, of little worry to the government of China, as long as it fails to state in support of Article 22, since practically all the situations drawn to the attention of CAT’s have been brought before it via the use of this system. However, the responsibility describes in Article 3 is the same for every party. It states that in the report a party has to guide the CAT, on which what litigation it has to implement, so as to meet its terms. It is of a higher importance to China, as actions against terrorism have already been implemented.
The government of China, being a complex social institute, has a range of governmental organizations that the Article 10 of the CAT’s will have effect on. It needs a big number of national departments to educate and re-educate the workforce and then monitor the future behavior to access whether this process was effective or not. Article 10 of the Torture Convention puts a huge level of responsibility on a national party. In it section on education and information regarding the prevention of torture the following parties are concerned: military and civil persons in control enforcement of law, the state officials and other individuals, who take part in the custody, examination or handling of individuals in the country, who are either arrested, imprisoned or trapped. This obligation enacts a gigantic problem in terms of resources in all national parties; however, it is a problem that needs to be solved. One of the most important submissions of the entire Convention is its Article 16, which forbids cruel, inhuman, or humiliating conduct or punishment. The implementation of this act by the government of China has raised certain worries in the CAT, especially regarding the prison situations and the methods, which capital penalties are carried out in China.