Intelligence is the rational skills that make possible the realization of goals and the ability to make use of skills and information in a myriad of cultural surroundings. By and large, it is the indispensable element that constitutes the ability of an organism to adapt to its surroundings. According to psychology’s psychometric approach, one is able to quantitatively determine acumen by a particular numerical value.
On the other hand, the cultural approach asserts that human cognitive traits are fundamental and they gain expression in accordance with the biological programming including the environmental influences. At its very core, intelligence is simply the ability to understand the external and internal world, in such a way that an individual is able to triumph over impediments, accomplish goals, and adjust to shifting circumstances (Loh, 2005).
The Hypothesis of Multiple Intelligences
During the1980s, a man named Howard Gardener came up with an all-inclusive set of intelligences. In the1990s, he came up with an additional theory. Accordingly to his hypothesis, multiple intelligences include the linguistic, logical-mathematics, interpersonal, naturalistic, and intrapersonal traits.
This scientific explanation is largely grounded on the bio-psychological potential to process information. It is also founded on the cultural setting to get to the bottom of challenges and come up with solutions that are of value within a particular culture. It is worth noting that multiple intelligences have motivated a variety of innovative teaching practices and methods. However, it is restricted by its imprecise significance as well as extensive applicability (Neisser, 2007).
The Quantitative Assessment System (CAS) is used in this approach, founded on the theory of development, concentration, instantaneous, and successive cognitive processes (PASS). This idea is founded on its ability to come across gifted and talented people that would not regularly be identified out through the traditional IQ tests.
A research was carried out on 51 Dutch children on the implementation of CAS, with the results indicating positive diagnosis for ADHD. The consequences pointed that these children had low attention as well as planning scores. Nevertheless, the young ones scored very highly on the consecutive and instantaneous scores. This gives the implication that ADHD has no considerable influence on attention. It is also worth noting the shortfall realized do not entail a general discrepancy regarding consecutive and simultaneous cognitive activities (Neisser, 2007).
In most cases, traditional IQ tests only take into account the systematic skills nearly absolutely without giving any consideration to other types of intelligence. Moreover, it has been noted that traditional IQ tests are based on the static and outdated hypothesis on intelligence which puts emphasis on the correlation between IQ tests and achievement. These are some of the shortcoming that PASS theory seeks to overcome.
In 1904, a psychologist named Alfred Binet came up with an experiment to determine the intelligence dexterity of the French students. He possibly did not imagine that his study could transform the world. Over the past couple of decades, there have been major IQ and accomplishment assessments that have altered the features of edification as well as service over the mechanized world.
According to Binet, intelligence was equated with the common sense, being an amalgamation of various skills which are greatly shaped by the environment. The goal of his research was to assist teachers in adapting their methods of teaching to the needs and capacities of the particular students they teach. In this way, students who had weaknesses in math could be granted exceptional consideration in this specific area (APA, 2006).
There was a big change when IQ and achievement tests were exported to the United States. In addition, some researchers kept on believing that acumen is a learned blend of a number of diverse talents and abilities. On the other hand, many scholars argued that acumen is a single trait which is gauged by heredity strongly. Furthermore, some others believe that there are racial and ethnic differences with regard to general intelligence (Neisser, 2007).
In many ways, a novel realm of research is now in support of Binet’s innovative and more progressive assumption. For instance, a study has indicated that there has been a steady rise in IQ all over the developed world. The past predisposition for standard IQ to rise is known as the Flynn Effect. It has profound implications in how individuals think about IQ. In this sense, the effect means that African-Americans in the present day have a superior average IQ performance than that of white Americans who existed approximately 70 years ago.
Importance and Practical Application
Before the contemporary period of intelligence tests, a student could only get education depending on his gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic background. This means that if a male student’s father was a lecturer in a major academic institution, he could have the similar chances. However, if the father was a janitor, his chances of getting education could be slim (APA, 2006).
Nonetheless, in this day and age, IQ and accomplishment tests have the potential of identifying gifted scholars from all walks of life. This greatly streamlines the levels of public education, without any room for prejudice. Definitely, the playing field is yet to be leveled, but there are hints that things are improving.
This is shown by the fact that both the achievement and IQ tests are in process being advanced and enhanced. For instance, in response to the concerns about cultural and tribal prejudices, the idea of multiple intelligences came up (Neisser, 2007). Additionally, a cognitive psychologist named Robert Sternberg developed a three constituent hypothesis of acumen that takes into account systematic, practical and creative intelligence.
According to the scientist, traditional IQ tests cannot be used to assess the practical intelligence. Although, it is simple to measure and also permits people to efficiently become accustomed to the life’s demands. Besides, Sternberg is of the idea that practical intelligence can be used to envisage the kind of job an individual will have in future (Loh, 2005).
A couple of years ago, Sternberg came up with the Rainbow Project – an investigate assignment done in conjunction with the College Board. The project was intended to complement the SAT by the incorporating aspects like creativity as well as practical intelligence. The findings generated from the project indicate that extended SAT envisages authentic achievement in college in a more precise way than the traditional SAT score (APA, 2006). Moreover, the initial results demonstrate the tribal disparities that have been traditionally observed on the spoken and math sections of the SAT are significantly abridged for the tests of creativeness or realistic aptitude.
Notwithstanding the SAT findings, it is not clear if modern-day research will result in the fundamental modifications in the way students are assessed and taught in the United States and other developed countries. Nevertheless, a number of educational institutions are already making use of the IQ as well as achievement tests that specialize on a variety of talents and capabilities.
Additionally, non-conventional education techniques are still established on the embedded supposition that intelligence has various components. This is indicated by the cooperative learning techniques which were developed by a psychologist Dr. Elliot Aronson. The latter is established on the proposal that achievement in education necessitates that children ought to use a wide variety of intellectual dexterity (Loh, 2005).
The Significance Intelligence Testing in the Society
Today, intelligence testing plays a key role with regard to the educational practices. For example, IQ testing is commonly used in the preparation of forms of exceptional education for people who are considerably at the back in terms of psychological capabilities (Neisser, 2007). In case educational institutions come to a decision to do away with their organization of intelligence testing in the times to come, then a considerable amount of resources has to be employed in the special educational developments. It should be noted that additional costs of taking into service the expert personnel to assess individual students carefully may be far above what the schools are to pay for.
Nowadays schools can also make use of aptitude testing due to the would-be future government guiding principles that necessitate all schools should be able to exhibit development as far as the learning of students is concerned (APA, 2006). This guiding principle has been brought into force today in the United States, whereby no child is left behind.
This is a government policy where the introduced laws necessitate students to express the satisfactory level of knowledge. As a result of these laws, schools may be pressurized to use intelligence testing like the comprehensible substantiation against accusations of unprofessional conduct. In this way, intelligence testing may go a long way in serving as a shielding measure against court cases (Neisser, 2007).
Additionally, the applying of intelligent testing is also likely to increase in reaction to the administrative guiding principles. With the assistance of IQ tests, many schools are to put emphasis on students with the need to meet satisfactory levels of development (Dennis, Francis, Cirino, Scahcar, Barnes, & Fletcher, 2009). Therefore, as a consequence of the government policies, schools can be forced to increase their reliance on the aptitude testing to endow with them with the satisfactory scale of aid.
Intelligence testing is also vital since it is likely to affect almost every aspect of the times to come. This is mainly because many parts of the globe are presently unavoidably connected to the fields of education as well as individual aptitude. Aptitude testing is able to assist teachers to plan lessons based on the levels of students’ intellectual abilities. Furthermore, intelligence testing can assist employers to evaluate the intellectual capabilities of their employees. As a result, they are in a position of estimating the general work performance that can be expected from the probable employees (APA, 2006).
Totally, intelligence testing is a vital aspect in approximately every feature of humanity. This is the reality because of the fact many parts of the globe are today connected to the realms of instruction as well as human intelligence. The actuality that aptitude testing is efficient, cheap and reasonably accurate is an indication that will be of importance in the world.
Intelligence testing in itself has over the years faced a lot of prejudice, especially when using measurements that are meant for a small percentage of populations cross-culturally. All in all, the world today has become a global village particularly on the issues of education. Consequently, the society cannot shy away from using the intelligence testing as a way of gauging the intelligence of people. After all, there are no better ways of assisting schools to avoid the unnecessary lawsuits which may come up when there are accusations regarding malpractices concerning the admission of students. Therefore, IQ testing is a fair way of determining people’s level of intelligence.