Free «Intro to Sociological Issues in 21st Century» Essay Sample

Subtopic 1: Social System and Families

Description of Concrete Experience:

While working as a human resource manager, I realized social system and family structure has great influence on our social life in our working place.  As we interrelate with one another in the society, a variety of social processes takes place. Since there are processes in this natural world, societal processes are apparent to occur in the prearranged life of society. These social processes are essential for life, presence and smooth working of the system in the social system. In most of the companies that I have worked with as a human resource manager, I have realized that different social systems have different effect in the smooth running of the organization. I have worked with different employs who have diverse social system and families. This has given me sight to understand that social system is vital to our effective management.


I strongly believe that many aspects influence the social system. Tradition, loyalty, trust, stability and interdependency are all significant in understanding the way in which a family functions. Rules, Boundaries, and patterns of communication as well as cultural effects also influence how families function as a social system. All these components manipulate one another in their inter-relationships within the family structure. I have a great feeling that these same mechanisms are found within all social system.

My social life during my first time of work is actually not the same as my current social system. Family social systems might operate based on generational, where things vary down the line with every new cohort rising. A family social system has to revolutionize along with it,like  any other social system.

Generalizations, Principles, & Theories:

Studies reveal that, social system consist of processes. Theses social processes are recurring, incessant forms of prototypes in the social systems, which take place as individuals, societies, groups, countries interrelate with each other. These are interaction modes or patterns, amid members within a group and a society concerning particular cyclic features, happening at micro-level and macro-level. They help us interpret and understand our social behavior.

Testing and Application

Having served in various departments, I can be describe a social system  as the arrangement of activities, values, processes or phenomena throughout time in a society in a sequence of actions. The rearrangement and alteration may engross simple or multifaceted alteration in the form, shape or structure of the social phenomena. At times, it may denote the total replacement of the occurrence and their total substitute by new structures.

Family social change takes place all the time. The process of families’ social change may not be perceptible and can be collective; we might not easily distinguish the progressions of social change, even though it is constantly taking place. It is hard to find a society, which is static and rigid. All societies are vulnerable to social change. Social change is a worldwide occurrence. It is spread both in space and over time. While as a Volunteer coordinator in 1994-2010, I have learned that working with different people, involve understanding their social background in order to understand them much better. 

Subtopic 2: Social and Moral Order

Description of Concrete Experience:

After working in various departments for sometimes, I have come to learn that sociology is a subject that belongs to the social science. In almost every organization and company that I have been to, order is a necessity. I 2006, while working for VT Griffin as a human resource manager, I learned a lot in regards to social and moral order.  There was an order followed I terms of communication between workers in different levels. Social and moral order plays a leading function in the social sciences. I can conclude that sociology is a social science, which deals with the patterns and processes of group interaction and human individual, the types of association of social groups, the association amid them, and group effects on individual conduct, and the relations between individual social group and the other group.


While I was working as a human resource manager at Dahar Chemical Company, I realized that social order plays an important role in our lives and even in our place of work. Social order is a phrase, which is used in social science to mean patterned social understandings in a society that are determined of and emergent from the individuals’ actions. The usage of this phrase has varied over time and could reflect different levels of analysis in varying sociology sub-fields. The idea of social structure as association between diverse groups, entities or as enduring a comparatively stable pattern of associations stresses the notion that a society is group into sets of roles or structurally connected groups, with varying meanings, purposes or functions.

Generalizations, Principles, & Theories:

According to the literature, the thought of social order is closely associated to a number of fundamental issues in social science. It is regarded as comprise normative or cultural patterns that describe the anticipations that agents hold about the behaviors of each other and that systematize their lasting relationships with each other. It provides regulations that promote order I an organization.

Testing and Application

During my time working in logistical, technical, and analytical support for manning level and operational planning, while working forCaretakers Services Inc, I uses to embrace social and moral order. I understood the need for social and moral order, which facilitates smooth and effective running of an organization. I can affirm that social structure influences our social order. A good example of a social structure is the notion of social stratification, which implies that a society is divided into strata, guided by the primary structure in the social organization. The approach has been significant in the academic writing with the growth of a variety of structuralism forms.

Social Problems

Description of Concrete Experience:

Since I have worked in different fields with different professionals with diverse ideas and opinions, it has come to my understanding that there are a number of problems related to our social life. Being a human resource manager in various companies, has given me great understanding I regards to social problems. In 2004, I was working as a human resource manager for LLC A CSC Company. My duties were coordinating active employees and retiree health insurance, and other benefits, cost-of-living increases, and bi-weekly employee orientation meetings. I learned that employees, who are stressed with their family time due to being overworked, demonstrate a much higher danger for psychological difficulties.  


I have understood that many companies are faced with social problems that need to be addressed in an efficient manner. It is very clear that social problems affect the success and behavior of people in an organization. A big problem I noted in dealing with social problems based on family issues in the place of work centers on substance abuse and alcoholism. These problems contribute  to a unhappy labor force that results in a major loss of work time and productivity, costing the company billions of dollars.

Generalizations, Principles, & Theories:

The literature highlights a number of levels, which help in understanding social problems. Macro-sociology deals with the wide features of the social order. The objective of macro-sociology is to study the large-scale societal phenomena that decide how social settings are positioned and organized within a social structure. The Micro-sociological analysis level deals with social interaction. It examines inter-personal relations, and on what we do and how we conduct ourselves when we interrelate. This level of psychoanalysis is typically employed by symbolic interactions perspective.

There is also a third level of analysis referred to as meso-level psychoanalysis, which examines our human communal occurrences in between the micro-level and macro-levels analysis. Reflecting their meticulous academic attention, sociologists might prefer one type of analysis to the other analysis; but every level of analysis is helpful and essential for a total understanding of the social life in the society.

Testing and Application

Having served in different companies as a human resource manager, it has come to my knowledge that if social problems are not handled effectively, a company will run at loss. Social problems contribute a lot to the decline of company’s productivity and success. For example, when I was working for Nike Company, I realized that whenever there was a social problem touching employees, the company’s productivity was low. I worked with VT Griffith LSS as manager human resources; however, this position demanded total concentration because my work affected the overall operations and operating levels. Many of our employees had different interpersonal groupings and conflicts could arise any moment. Conflicts among young people can rise up very easily even though it takes very little time to wear out. On the other hand, conflicts among older groups tend to take time to bring about social change. I am personally sure that age differences means a lot to the social change, which takes place in a given society.

Subtopic 4: Social Change

Description of Concrete Experience

Social change is one topic that hits across all sectors within any economy and society. I am very sure that change is an irreversible process that takes place constantly in various societies. Social change can occur slowly while at times it can take place very rapidly. In most cases, social change is sudden, one that replaces an older social life. I am a family person and social change is a brilliant subject that constantly takes place within us. In the Nike Company, that I worked as a HR assistant since 1996, my responses and actions also contributed largely to social changes. Social change brings about different thoughts that put me in a very huge dilemma. My employees constantly work with me but how about social changes that affects them eventually. 


Working environments are nowadays diverse with varying interpersonal dynamics that keep on changing every new day; this was clearly, when I worked for Goodwill Industries Big Bend as director human resources from 2009 to 2011.  This position was one that demand lots of team building in order to bring about successful results. It is becoming clear to me that social change is one hell of a question and topic that need a lot of moderation. No matter the position and duties, that awaits anyone; it is good and prudent to understand mechanisms of social change and underlying factors that cause social change. In my whole life, I have witnessed the effects of social change. Changes in one sphere affect in a way the general functions of other spheres. Many people must understand that social change takes place due to several factors. These factors are majorly divided into two broad categories namely endogenous and exogenous factors.

Generalizations, Principles, & Theories:

Theories concerning social change have usually been concerned with the course of change and the way in which change take place. Sociologists desire to clarify the direction, cause, effects and nature of social change. In regards to my experience, I strongly agree with some of these theories.

1. Structural Functionalist Theory

The theory affirms that social change occurs as the division and diversification of labor augments in the social organization of a specified society. Structural functionalist is based on the order, stability and cohesion of a social system. When I was working for Nike Company, I experienced that social system is all about order, stability and cohesion Alteration disturbs the systematic performance of the social organization. Structural- functionalist hypothesis focuses on the result of social alteration on the arrangement of society, the dysfunction and function of change, equilibrium and stability of the social system. As change occurs, it influences the equilibrium and order of the social system and therefore the system must bring itself back to the stability, to smooth working of the system.

2. Conflict Theory

This theory affirms that social change occurs because of the ever-present set disagreements in the social structure for the better or worse. In regards to this theory, therefore, social change is the effect of social disagreements and is beneficial and essential. Each social system holds within itself the causes of change as long as it is a system where the exploitation of single group by the other exists.

3. Linear Theory

I agree with this theory based on my past social life and working experience in different companies. This theory indicates that change occurs in a linear style. The course of social change is from poorer to improved, simple to multifaceted and backward to contemporary. According to linear speculation, social alteration is evolutionary; it is constantly towards the improved way until excellence is achieved.

4. Cyclic Theory

This theory affirms that society undergoes alteration in circular style. Social transformation takes a cyclical form, from poorer to improved, back once more from improved to poorer. Social change is not constantly for the better. Society may advance, grow, and get to climax stage of growth, and then it may finally collapse and stagnate, with the possibility of rising again. 

Modernization Theory

Modernization theory of social change based on my experience is an expansion of evolutionary theory. The theory states that a change that is experienced by the majority Third World societies is by copying or imitating the experiences, models and values of already rationalized societies. It is by assimilating, internalizing and adopting those features of the developed societies, which if copied might bring about a better social, political and economic growth to the society.

Subtopic 5: How Leisure Affects the Society over Time

Description of Concrete Experience

Leisure is one human aspect, which affects all the societies in one way or another. Over a given amount of time the type of leisure activities that exist will most certainly shape the general behavior of the society. In all various positions that I have worked in, there is human misunderstanding about the word leisure. Employees can get into many problems especially when they put their interests ahead of the company’s objectives and requirements. We must take all the initiatives in the world to understand leisure in the society. This is one critical aspect, which affects the general productivity of all economically viable projects.


In my view, the youth need to be given meaningful and varied opportunities so that it encourages full participation in all sectors of the economy. Ways on how various young people spend their time really matters a lot. Our children at adolescent stages require very strict and specific guidance into human and societal dynamics. Many people in the society do not understand the term leisure. 

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Generalizations, Principles, & Theories:

Many researchers differ in their meanings but they all converge to a single definition. Leisure is that time when a person is not at work or in school. The amount of time that a society has or enjoys leisure time varies from one region to another. Relevant leisure activities are required by different societies because the needs of today are becoming unpredictable. Individual assessments are supposed to be done to establish the correct type of leisure for a given society. Various researches have confirmed that leisure time is equally vital to adolescents and brings about several positive outcomes.

The history of leisure is another critical subject that we must understand very well. Happiness within the society is found in leisure and not in amusements. The correct uses of leisure must take place in civilized societies and among civilized individuals as well. We must constantly rethink leisure and explore how it can expand our opportunities among young people and communities. We must not view leisure as one that belongs to the young people alone; this topic is also relevant to the society at large. Personal and community development rely much on how leisure issues are handled.

Testing and Application

Based on my experienced both in my professional and social life, I have learned the importance of leisure. First, leisure is the source of emotional/social engagement and development. This involves the ability to cope with adverse and positive situations. People can sustain their relationships and improve their emotions significantly. Second, effective engagement and vocational development are possible with leisure in place. This involves acquisition of all functional and organizational skills, which are necessary for economic employment. In this manner people are able to meet their targets and objectives. We must constantly rely on leisure so that we will be in a good position to make better judgments.

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Third, leisure ensures physical development of the body organs. Depending on the type of leisure, body organs tend to respond positively to exercises and other ways of relaxing the nervous system. Fourth, leisure enables cognitive development; this is a condition which makes sure individuals gain basic knowledge on areas such as critical thinking, creativity and problem solving. Finally, leisure enables adequate civic development to take place. This is one brilliant function, which ensures that adolescents are taken through the dynamics within them and outside their societies

Subtopic 6: How Concept of Work Affects the Society

Description of Concrete Experience

I have worked in several companies, but I have realized that the concept of work varies from one company to the other. I can put it into two contexts, work that requires mental power and work that require physical strength.  As I worked as a consultant in Caretakers Services, Inc. I experienced that work and society make up two subjects that need a great understanding for mutual benefit to occur. Working can bring either benefits or demerits to a society.


From my experience working under different positions and playing different roles, I can saye that the concept of work is becoming a paradoxical topic for many people around the world. We must carefully assess this situation because work gives us income that we need to spend in order to satisfy our needs. On the other hand, I can say that it one that is bringing about unwanted cultures and robbing away original cultures and ways of lives for many people. Many organizations that I have worked for have specific goals and objectives to achieve within a given period of time. They work as systems and not the way the society exists. The society totally works in a different way out to satisfy the needs of many in different ways. The means of achieving its goals and objectives can only be defined by concerned individuals.

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Generalizations, Principles, & Theories:

In an economy, work is considered good and therefore it is encouraged. The society benefits through incomes to individuals and development of infrastructure. People need to be put in situations where they create a reliable demand in the market. Organizations therefore come in to provide goods desired by these individuals. These goods will only come if there is a working society. In this perspective we must understand that work is good and healthy to the society since it redistribute incomes and put away poverty and other social ills that are brought about by idleness and hopelessness.

Testing and Application

Work plays a vital role in the society. I believe that work derails the identity of individuals since it trains and develop the brain to fit exactly some specific needs. Work actually brings about ranks that do not obey the societal structure. Work empowers people to rule the society with money and not cultural values that are respected. Finally, work will never cease to affect the society, however, leaders and other respective groups must come together to ensure that both parties benefit from the concept of work. 


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