Table of Contents
This is a type of research which is intended to gather information about people on how they act and think.It is used to understand the behavior of people in the society. For example, one can understand the cause high rate of divorces in marriage by carrying out a survey research.It can be used to provide evidence to be used in a criminal justice. For example a survey research can be conducted in order to provide the cause and solution of a social problem.Survey Research makes it possible for individual to contribute his or her views about something. For example, people expressing their individual views about a behavior through a survey.
Self-Esteem is satisfaction and a confidence in oneself. It pertain personal values, attitudes, ability and beliefs that one holds about himself or herself.Self-Esteem promotes society greater well-being (Sedikides & Gregg, 2008). For example, citizens who appreciate themselves in the society have personal responsibility to take part in the tasks because of the welfare of the society. Social Self-Esteem criminal justice among the offenders will vary according to the crimes. For example, child molesters, violent offender and rapists will have different criminal justice with child molesters being considered to be the lowest crime than violent offenders and rapists. Individual with high self-Esteem feels that he or she can accomplish anything. For example, when a teacher tells a student that he or she is ahead of anyone in that class, and this will make the student to feel good about himself or herself and continue to work hard in case of the performance.
This is the process in which a person tries to make choices or act in some ways which will make it possible for him or her externalizes the failures and internalizes success. It can also be defined as the choice or action which makes one to avoid the responsibilities for his or her failures.Self-Handicapping has led to some of social problem like drug abuse, alcoholism, decreased work output and also tests anxiety. For example, is when a student says he is not feeling well prior to examinations and so if fails the exams he will have excuses for justifying his failure.Self-Handicapping is used in criminal justice where people develop defense mechanisms trying to blame others because of their own failures (Thompson & Richardson, 2001). For example, when an abusive father is taken to the court of law because of his irresponsible behavior of negligence of his children, he blames his wife for his failure Self-Handicapping is applied by individual by creating obstacles to success so that he or she can have excuse for the failure. For example, when one gets no sleep a day before an exam so that to have an excuse of the failure to be lack of sleep but not lack of his intelligence.
This is the tendency that people believe that they had foreseen or predicted the outcome of an event like sporting or politics event after they have happened. This is the perception of nature and significance of events once they occur.This applies to the society by making them to over react to events (Morse & Gergen, 2007). For example, in politics a group of followers of a specific candidate may over react thinking that the politician will win the election but to their outcome he becomes to be defeated.It influences the criminal justice outcome. For example, the defendants of case in a court of law will be judged according to the ability of one to prevent a bad outcome. It makes an individual to have a feeling of a success than a failure. For example, an entrepreneur due to Hindsight Bias will have a guarantee that a start-up business will succeed without failing but the outcome may be different.
This is a psychologist concept which describes that, the cause of a given person behavior is attributed by the situational factors where the behavior happened.In the society due to external attribution people will tend to interpret their environment in order to maintain an optimistic self-image. For example, learners who have failed in an academic task, they will attribute their failures to factors like bad luck or bad teaching. Before making a criminal justice in external attribution due to a criminal behavior, is important to know that the attribution may be in a multidimensional nature. For example, when a drug addicted man kills her wife and he is judged that it is due to his nature of taking drugs he ended up killing her wife but it is known that, he was defending himself since her wife wanted to kill him due to that behavior. It affects one in the way he or she makes decisions. For example, one will tend to value the interdependence and conformity of the culture in the family, tribe, work and the nation.
This is a state of unease and discomfort arising from the discrepancy between person beliefs, thoughts, or attitude and the behavior. It creates dissonance in the society. For example, in a situation where women in the society according to their beliefs value financial security in their relationship will have conflicts with financially irresponsible men.It applies in criminal justice for example, when one is put in jail and later the evidence proof that he is innocent. It applies when an individual has to make decisions or change attitude because of a behavior. For example, when one decides to leave her husband due to excessively drinking but end up feeling discomfort because of her children
This is an advertising message which is intended to convince or strengthen the opinions, beliefs, values and also to modify, form or change the attitude of the viewers and listeners of media.
It makes the audience to accept or reject a certain behavior. For example when media persuade people on important of brushing their teeth after a meal, people will accept and reinforce that behaviorCriminal justice is initiated by the court of law when the media wrongly persuade the audience. For example when media persuade the audience to go on strike without a court order, legal actions are taken to that media.Media persuasion makes an individual to credibility familiarizes with a products, services, or ideas being sold. For example, when is persuaded to buy a certain product and goes on to buy the product.