An education system should be aimed explicitly at improving the quality of living among the students (Olive, 2008). A well-strategized approach ought to be designed in manner that should facilitate effective learning of the students in a conducive and appropriate environment. Learning institutions, just like other institutions in the society, require rules and regulations in order to maintain discipline and focus in the institution. Definition of instructions among curriculum designers captures the deliberate facilitation of learning towards the set goals and objectives. Instructions are organized in such a way that the stakeholders entirely play their role optimally, thus, realizing the maximum achievement of the set goals. Evaluation, on the other hand, involves the measures that revisit the framework outlined in the program with the aim of improving and validating its effectiveness.
In line with curriculum designing, instruction outlined should favor both weak and bright students as targeted by the program. The weak students suffer more than the bright students in instances where flaws in curriculum quality exist. It is at this point that intervention is needed to design means and ways to assist those who are under performing to improve their performance (Hall & Hord, 2006). In designing a curriculum for underperforming students, the program designer needs to incorporate and outline the contribution of all the stakeholders in the program. This aims at getting educational and social benefits for the students. This project targets the improvement of the performance of the students in the lowest quartile. Improving performance in institutions of learning requires that teachers adopt the culture of collective efforts of the staff. The collective strength and talents of the teachers is effectively harnessed to promote individual students’ performance.
The curriculum should also incorporate social, academic and co-curricular activities aimed at developing the students’ skills. The manner in which the institution will develop a curriculum will be determined by the level of student’s performance and environmental factors surrounding the teaching or coaching fraternity. The education body in government designs the syllabus that it supposed to be implemented by all schools in that level of training. However, specific institutions develop their own approaches on how the syllabus is to be institutionalized. They consequently customize the syllabus to suit the prevailing environment. In designing the curriculum, institutions have to take into consideration the students characteristics, staff composition and other external factors that influence education depending on the locality of the institution (Vaughn, 2011).
The existing academic performance gap among the bright and weak students have motivated the initiation of such a program that will go a long way into helping the institutions of learning build and improve individual and social capacities of the students. The program will be target for the lowest academic quartile in the institution since it will be easy to monitor the effectiveness of the program, assist in bridging the pronounced gap and therefore ensure that the students’ talents are harnessed properly and not wasted blatantly. Assisting this group is deemed essential in building the student self-esteem. Adequate funds will be necessary to run the program effectively and consistently. Conversely, lack of funds will hinder full implementation of the program and thus lead to failure in the realization of the targeted objectives and goals. The paper seeks to outline convincing information to donors for their full support of the program (Lioyd & Modlin, 2012)
(a). Purposes and Shared Responsibilities of Comprehensive Instructional Intervention
Students’ learning is the ultimate criterion for validating the effectiveness of the instructions in a learning sector. Evaluating students using exams may not yield much information on the effectiveness of the curriculum. This is because students may be engaged in means aimed at improving their exam result despite poor learning skills. Therefore, focusing on exam performance with the aim of judging the students’ understanding of the instructions may not suffice the expectations. The institution should engage in timely evaluation of necessity and appropriateness of the instruction.
This should be followed by appropriate intervention aimed at improving the approach of the instructions. The first purpose of comprehensive instructional intervention is to determine the areas that will require reinforcement in order to reduce the performance game. In this connection, views will be taken from the teaching fraternity, the administration, students, parents and other significant stakeholders on the best strategies to be employed. Involving the stakeholders in the strategizing the way forward will ensure that the problem is addressed from its root. These opinions will be consolidated and harmonized to bring about a framework for drafting the way forward. Using the comprehensive instructional intervention, the team will focus on the flaws determined in the system.
Secondly, bringing the achievement gap remains the principle role of the intervention strategy. The effectiveness of the instructions will form the focal point of the strategy. The intervention will be target for improving the comprehensibility of the instruction. Understanding during the teaching process is the first attempt in improving the students’ performance. The mode of teaching adopted in the institution will be updated to ensure that the emphasis is laid on helping the weak student to understand better. Ignoring the poor students affect even the performing students since they engage in discussion on how to assist their colleagues. Instead of focusing on the method for improving their achievement, they waste a lot of efforts in strategizing how to assist their classmates. In other instances, the students will disregard the underperforming students terming them as poor ones. This kill their self-esteem and their morale in improving their achievement, consequently, broadening the achievement gap. Therefore, improving the teaching approach remains a crucial approach for this intervention (Vaughn, 2011).
The social aspects of a student have a considerable effect to student’s performance. The problem of poor performance is not solely inclined to factors in the education sector. Some of the social factors that have been determined to affect the students’ performance include peer groups, family issues, nutritional factors, economic status of the family, racial factors and hobbies. In this connection, one of the purposes of comprehensive intervention is to outline how the social factors will be solved or stabilized. Ignoring this factor may consistently affect the performance even when other educational factors have been solved. For instance, the financial problems affecting the student in the lower quartile are solved through supportive approach with the institution. The institution will determine the needy students and act accordingly. This in turn, will assist the student in focusing with education, thus, boosting their performance (Pellegrini, 2009).
In addition, a shared responsibility will help the society in involving the student in community development programs. Exchange programs enable students to identify their talents. Identifying the strong areas will enable the student to build the sense of self-worth, boosting morale, feeling of achieving something in the society for self-actualization and becoming active. Involving the student in practical programs will enable them to remain active and encourage them in working hard in the class levels. Community development will also potentiate dissolution of personal differences among the students that could have influenced on the performance of the students negatively.
Other than being target for improving the students’ academic achievement alone, the students will be in better position in securing a position at the job market. This competitive ability is hypothesized to exacerbate the student’s efforts toward academic achievement. Most of the employees are focusing on additional skills among the students other than the academic qualification. Leadership skills, team play, volunteering, ability to work under minimal supervision is some of the benefits that the students stand to benefit from once they involve themselves with community development programs (Lioyd & Modlin, 2012). Therefore, comprehensive instruction intervention will incorporate areas and opportunities exposing students to such fields.
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Poor effective ability to learn determines the performance of the students, in the academic arena. Poor ability to comprehend the information gathered from learning materials is eminently reflected in the evaluation test. In lower quartile of education, student should be taught how to read, comprehend and use the information acquired in life scenarios. The concept of cramming the information in the books should be disputed at all levels of learning. This will ensure that the students focus on understanding the information acquired not for exam purposes but to help them improve their life situation. In this connection, the intervention framework will help in reinforcing the instructions that will assist the students in the learning process. The poor readers among the students’ fraternity will be assisted in identifying the probable approaches of comprehensive reading. It is expected that after adequate intervention poor readers will maintain a consistent improvement in the achievement. The intervention program will require that the students receive the guidance till they are able to read on their own.
Teachers will not be left behind in the implementation of this program. They are crucial partners in the learning process and their influence to determine the level of achievement among the students. The program will engage the teacher to build on the spirit of collaboration in the role of coaching the students. The staff factors and unity among the teachers enable a 3600 approach in students’ performance evaluation. The teachers in the institution have to be evaluated for their competency qualification and suitability in their areas of specialization. This will ensure that the level of teaching adopted in the institution will be at level with the expectation of the education system. The teachers will be expected to monitor the students closely at different levels and make the necessary amendment required in the promoting achievement.
Discipline goes hand in hand with performance. Classroom management during the learning process is necessary for effective learning. Discipline leads to an enhanced learning environment that motivates the students and builds a positive attitude towards learning. Therefore, the program will emphasize establishment of discipline enhancing strategies among both the students and teachers. In this connection, the students will be well prepared, participate effectively in class, focus and maintain attention during class work. Teachers will be motivated to create the environment that is captivating, involving students in the learning process and competitive environment, which challenges students triggering harder.
Among the areas being target in this program there is included a campaign for arriving early enough for class, maintaining silence and attention in class and reducing students’ behavioral referral cases. The educators should establish an authority ground to facilitate maintenance of manners. Poor discipline in school is associated with a number of factors such as too high set targets, inadequate of resources required to achieve their goals, boredom; negative attitude towards a subject, teacher or the institution; emotional instabilities and social problems (Neuzil, 2012). Therefore, addressing the underlying cause of indiscipline will help in maintaining order in the institution, thereby enhancing performance.
These shared responsibilities will enhance education and achievement among the lower quartile section of the education sector. In conclusion, the number of Ds and Fs scored by the student will drastically reduce and the quality of education will be increased among the student being target for the intervention. The approach will also play a crucial role in strengthening the existing initiative to reduce target in the achievement continuum. The number of student graduating to the next level in every grade will increase. The code of conduct outlined in this program will enhance the students’ discipline. All these will see the improvement in ensuring that the performance of the students is maintained at the highest level.
(b) Role of Major Stakeholders
Intervention in the learning process should be collaboration approach involving all the stakeholders in the education system. Failure of one department weakens the strategies being formulated. Therefore, in facilitating effective implementation, the following stakeholders have been identified.
This is the group that is target for the intervention and effectiveness of the program will be dependent upon the improvement realized within the group. The group is expected to comply will the curriculum expectation so as to benefit maximally. The learners are the universal stakeholders in this program, their participation and involvement will be of immense significance in the fulfillment of the program. According to Neuzil, 2012, learner can either make or break the program depending on the attitude and adopting level which they will receive. In the development of the new initiative, the age, gender, level of health and their cultural background has to be considered. The initiative will expect the learners to comply with the instruction developed (Kiyenze, 1984).
During the curriculum design, the learners have to be involved in a great deal of ensuring that the program is effective. This will ensure that they know the program and that the initiative is in line with their goals and objectives in every educational level. Creation of learners friendly will be easier to implement, thus motivating the students toward their goals. Confusing sections in the initiative are communicated on time and suggestion on improvement forward to the necessary authority.
The measures instituted in determining the success of the program will be evaluated using the learners as the subjects. Therefore, their role in the new initiative also requires them to comply with the evaluation process giving honest responses where necessary. This will assist in validating the program.
(ii). Teachers: Principal, Classroom Teachers, Psychologist and Auxiliary Coaches
Teachers are the primary implementers of the initiative. They are expected to create a perfect link between the initiative developers and the target group (students). The implementation will be highly based on their ability to facilitate learning with the students. Using their positions, they are able to determine the specific goals of students, challenges being faced by the students, external interferences with the initiative. They address the goals, needs and interest of the learners guided by the initiative. In this manner, cultural and other external factors are easily neutralized (Subang, 2011).
Teachers will also assume the role of assessing the students’ performance. They have to develop a sound evaluation strategy that will be objective other than subjective. The evaluation process should be target for students at all levels. In areas where the implementation of the initiative has to be modified, the teachers will assume the role with a focus on helping students to achieve maximum goals. Giving the variation of students’ capacities, teachers may decide to use parallel approaches in evaluating their learners so that all avenues of achievement are taken into consideration (Richards, 2001).
Teachers will also assume the role of involving on one interaction with the students either at class or co-curricular activities, personal and group levels. This will enable teachers to determine the possible exceptional needs that students may require. In doing so, students with exceptional needs will be assisted at a personal level. This will ensure that they remain competitive at the class level, thus bridging the achievement gap that exists in the current situation. It is in this involvement that they are engaged in guiding the students, facilitating and directing activities to enable the student to achieve higher grade.
Discipline maintenance is also a critical role for the teachers. Their date to date interaction with the learners enables them to understand learners better; thus, it is easy means to strategize the best ways to handle the students’ discipline. Both in the class and outside the class, the student will be monitored for appropriate behavior. In cases where punishment will be necessary, they are supposed to implement the punishment. It should be noted that punishment is corrective but not intimidating for students. Teachers have been added the role of administration, curriculum implementation and management of the school. Being the people on the ground of learning operations, they are best suited to distribute the resources in the institution according to needs and priority. Implementing the curriculum will enable them to determine areas that need reinforcement, amendments or elimination depending on practicality and benefit to the target group (Subang, 2011).
The first institution that students encounter in their life is the family. The parents offer the first guidance to their kids’ way before joining the institutions of learning. In this connection, the initial guidance is some sort from the parents before other stakeholders make their contribution. The role of parents is, thus, exceeding crucial if the students have to improve their performance. The first role of parents identified in this initiative program is moral support to their children. Parents need to motivate their children for them to develop the feeling of being supported by the significant people who matters in their life. Moral support is crucial in building and reinforcing the students’ hope making them able to stand up for themselves even when standing is not the easy.
Parents have an obligation to support the learners with the financial requirement for ease learning. Despite the availability of donors and resources from well-wishers, the financial needs for students will be benched heavily on parental assistance. Financial support from parents will include payment of school fee, pocket money, clothing, food and transport among others. Having a stable background will enable a child to concentrate with studies. In addition, parents have to offer a communication channel between school and home. Under this role, parents offer guidance and ideas on how the learner will achieve the goals outline in the school curriculum timely and effectively. Effective communication channel also plays a crucial role in reducing the indiscipline cases that are detrimental too as to learners’ achievement. Parental guidance will strengthen students’ responsibility towards learning and, thus, promoting favorable performance. It will be the role of the parents to ensure that they follow up the lesson to take assignment for their students, provide permission for their children to engage in activities within and without the school, and maintain discipline of their kids outside the school (Richards, 2001).
(iv).School Board of Directors
These are the stakeholders that determine the running of the institution. They have the role of soliciting for support from respective agencies, maintenance of discipline among the teaching fraternity, oversee implementation of the institution’s strategic plan for developmental purposes, and offer a platform for sharing ideas among the teaching staff, parents, students and other significant stakeholders. Their role is highly crucial in maintaining a consistent sound management of the institution (Valenciano, 2012).
The government and other education agencies have the role of overseeing the marriage between the initiative and the proposed educational syllabus. The government determines the licensure of both teachers and the institution, offers the summative evaluation test that harmonizes the learning different institution at the same level and oversees the broad implementation of curriculum in the institution (Valenciano, 2012).
This bracket includes the donors and well-wishers who are supporting the initiative financially. External evaluators will be involved in determining the accreditation standard of the initiative.
Learning should be goal oriented. The syllabus is usually guided by the training needs at each level with the aim of enabling students to fit in the society and help improve it at their level best. The training needs be emphasized in this initiative being mainly aimed at developing a foundation of responsibility and owning the learning process. The first training need being identified is to emphasize on comprehensive reading. Struggling readers encounter incredible challenges in their problem solving approaches. It would be devilishly difficult for students to handle exams if they have difficulties in reading. In this context, reading refers to the ability to interpret information coded in words, numbers and figures. The initiative aims at developing a self-regulated reading approach characterized by students’ ability to improve reading speed, incorporating a wide range of skills and knowledge and actively using constructive thinking to analyze situations.
Students need to be trained how to use abstract and constructing thinking in drawing the conclusion. This will enable them to see the broader picture presented in the reading materials. The student will also be able to relate the context reading with the real life situation. This empowers the learner by building interest of reading other than reading to pass the evaluation test. In addition, the learners need to be trained to develop the sense of responsibility in the learning process. Learning should not be seen as a compulsive force from the authorities such as the teachers, parents and the society or even a form of classifying individuals in the society (Hall & Hord, 2006). Instead, the learners should perceive learning as a path leading to brighter future.
Assessment of the Program
The short term evaluation will involve assessing the students’ ability to read and understand with minimal assistance from the teachers. Students’ achievement will be expected to improve whereby the number of Ds and Fs will be decreased by 30-40%. Ability to read on their own and reduction in poor grades will motivate the students’ participation in class. Therefore, during the assessment of the program, the number of students’ participation in class is expected to record a magnificent gain of 40%. In addition, the students record decline in indiscipline cases within and without the institution.
Medium term assessment is expected that students will continue with accelerated participation in class. Socially, the students are expected to engage in the community development programs at higher rate than the short term level. The fluency in reading is also enhanced, reduction in numbers of Ds and Fs scored by 60% while indiscipline cases reduce by 70%. Long term assessment should be the best illustration of a well strategized initiative. In this connection, students are expected to adopt culture of high discipline levels and eradication of Ds and Fs scores (World Bank, 2004).
Culture of active involvement in community development programs should be adopted and interactive with the teachers for the benefit improving their achievement. The students will be expected to maintain high achievement even after the intervention being withdrawn. The teachers will also be required to give their views on what areas worked, the areas that require modification of the instructions and difficulties encountered during implementation. Evaluation of teachers’ effectiveness will be evaluated using anonymous questionnaires to the students. Teachers will also engage on one discussion with the students on the program effectiveness.
Reduction of Staff Inequities
The program will be based on cooperation of the staff members from all departments. An inequity is one of the problems that may collapse the program. Therefore, profound steps to ensure fairness in the implementation of the initiative are effective. The program will employ a transparency in determining priority and needy areas. In this connection, the financial allocation will be guided by priority and need. A committee will be established to oversee the credibility of the resources allocation and utilization. Moreover, the students being identified with the needs for assistance will be discussed at the meeting of the staff to avoid cases of discrimination or injustice. The evaluation process will involve several parallel tests drafted by multiple designers with the aim of reducing cases of biasness or inappropriate judgment.
Role of the Government in the Program
The government can step in and provide such structures that are avenue for learning, availing the adequate teaching staff, development programs to support the staff learn the methods of improving performance and fund the program through availing learning tools. In addition, the government is required to work hand in hand with the institution to ensure that the policies regarding learning are upheld. Licensing and approving the program will also be determined by the government agencies. The government of the day therefore will meet the overhead cost as this is very integral role in facilitating the establishment of structures for the sake of the implementation of the curriculum.
Potential Obstacles to Implementation and Steps Dealing with Anticipated Resistance
Implementation of the program will depend mainly on the staff members’ cooperation. Building teachers’ knowledge to adopt the initiative will be one of the stiff challenges awaiting the implementation of the program. The teachers need extra time to facilitate sound evaluation and follow up of the students’ progress and performance. Proofing to the staff that the program will be effective may also be another challenge expected to be encountered. Inadequate professional wisdom to determine the characteristics of the students and specific needs of each student may pose a significant problem. In overcoming staff related obstacles, adequate training a consultation before and during the implementation process has to be employed.
Adequate resources effectively implementing the program will be another challenge hypothesized in the implementation of the program. The program is target for donors, and in this case they fail to take up the financing roles: it will be difficult to implement the program. Moreover, coming up with a comprehensive evaluation strategy will pose a challenge. It will require external evaluators to determine the validity of the program, and this is also another difficulty in the implementation process. On top of these, the complying with the national and federal government may face conflicts of interest. There will be adequate training and profound campaign to all the stakeholders to ensure that the program implementation is faced by minimal resistance. In addition, enough research materials will be availed to ensure that the stakeholders understand the basis of operation of the program.
Research Design Model
Implementation of the initiative program will be highly based on the adoption level by the stakeholders. A detailed research is to be done in order to support the program implementation among the researchers. The research study design employed to support the validity and effectiveness of the initiative was System to Enhance Educational Performance (STEEP) model (VanDerheyden, Witt, & Gilbertson, 2007). The research design model focuses on identification of students with performance difficulties related to particular needs. The model best suit this initiative since the targeted group is that of underperforming students. The student with be closely monitored consistently to identify the needs that are to be addressed among the group members. Once the problems are identified, appropriate measures will then be instituted to promote the students’ performance.
According to the developers of this model, the model is designed to use commercially available assessment standards. In this program mastery measurements and curriculum based measurement will be instituted in validating the effectiveness of the program. The research model involves five steps. Firstly, the researcher or the evaluator screening the student in the class setup to identify the needy students. This will focus on determining the individual students in every class that have difficulties in both academic and social adjacent difficulties. This is done through assessment test offered either biweekly or after every month. Those students who consistently perform poorly in a set of evaluation test will qualify to be among the targeted for the intervention program.
Since the project must be economically viable, a cost-effective because the program will require optimal resource allocation. This can be possible through the use of a budget process. The implementation matrix provides allocation of finances. This ensures that proper prioritization of choices is properly carried out. The matrix provides an elaborate mechanism applied in resource allocation. The budgeting involves each and every stakeholder and this goes a long way into ensuring that equity is well upheld and that no project is over allocated or under allocated with resources. The budget is broken down into various vote heads to facilitate this allocation.
About $13billion were to be allocated to the development of the education curriculum. Funds from national philanthropy were to be used to fund this project. This was meant to achieve a higher student affinity to complete the basic education. This was to be implemented on an year to year basis. The initial amount of money allotted in order to initiate this project was $3.8billion. This was to proceed in the subsequent years as this was a long term project that required proper funding if the objective was to be achieved. This means that the project demanded guaranteed finances.
The other project was the best student of the year award. This was aimed at bolstering healthy competition among students. This was to be carried over the five year period plan. This was to help motivate the students improve their academic performance and strengthen the quality of competition. Roughly $12billion were to be used in this project. Trickle down effects from this very crucial project would ensure that the students possess the right morale to embark on both academic and co-curricular activities. The essence of student motivation cannot be overemphasized in academic work (Richards, 2001).
The third project also bordered on motivation. College staff appraisal would help bolster the teaching fraternity’s working morale. This would ensure that the human resource department effectively harnesses the potential of human capital. Staff appraisal is paramount in any business environment as well as in academics. Approximately $6billion were to be invested in this project on a five year long term plan. This was to serve as an incentive to motivate the junior, subordinate as well as the teachers and other integral stakeholders in the organization. The centrality of motivation is highly acknowledged (Blazejowski, 2011).
The initiation of college-based enterprises was another project that required substantive investment. This was to cost a total of around $12billion. This project was aimed at increasing the likelihood of job placement. This was to ensure that the graduate students get viable employment opportunities. This was to be done in line with the curriculum objectives. Wastage in terms of knowledge is therefore properly addressed in order to reduce chances of unemployment. Since the unemployment level is still very high in today’s world, mitigation measures ought to be properly laid down and well implemented. This ensures that the level of youth unemployment is well addressed and therefore minimizing the dependency ration. Resources are therefore not used only in consumption but also savings consequently increase creating the likelihood of wealth creation.
Once the screening is done, and students are identified, the intervention program implementers will play their role at class wide level. Each stakeholder in the initiative program will be expected to assume his/her role in promoting the performance of students. Mobilization of resources is also done at this stage. Class wide intervention is done to reduce students’ population that will receive individualized monitoring. Class wide intervention will be conducted by the respective class teachers (with support of the other stakeholders) with a focus of enabling them to follow the performance of the students comparing them to those of their colleagues at the same level. Teachers were the first researchers at the initial stages of the process. Other employees are then integrated into the research process. They constitute an integral part of the research process.
The students being identified as not improving in class wide intervention level will then be taken through a performance/skill deficit evaluation stage. At this level of the model, the students are subjected to a psychologist who analyzes the students’ ability to handle general task. This will help in determining the underlying cause of poor performance. The cause can either be social, psychological, pathological or idiopathic. The cause will be significant in determining the approach that will be selected by the instructor in the individual intervention step. The role of the psychologies is, hence, that of paramount vitality in the implementation of the initiative program.
The fourth step in System to Enhance Educational Performance (STEEP) model involves personal level intervention. This follows the psychologies evaluation where those identified to possess performance deficit in the learning process are target at individual level that is the most difficult level in the intervention stage since it requires full involvement and collaboration of the students being in question. Failure to participate in the process will lead to poor realization of benefits from the program. The individual sessions are expected to last for minimum of ten minutes. During this stage of intervention, the students’ participation should be emphasized to avoid such a scenario where the student assumes a passive role in the program. Active involving the students will help them appreciate the efforts and not associate them with force mission to benefit the institution.
STEEP benefits the teacher in innumerable ways. When all children are screened, schools are in a position to establish the students who direly require assistance. This enables the teacher concerned to offer specialized attention to the students who need this help. This ensures that their academic development grow in tandem with the rest of the other group. Special education is therefore easily carried out since the service is a little bit fast. STEEP provides crucial information for instructional planning. Screening is used to enable the teachers comprehend and analyze each student’s class performance. This has become an integral part in general education activity in some districts. This is because it helps identify the students at risk and this helps mitigate the negative impacts associated with it. This is because STEEP offers systematic processes to assist the school improve the performance of all the students.
This method ensures that intervention is made before the situation goes out of hand. Options for assisting these students who are at risk are identified early enough. A team of well trained staff is charged with this responsibility. This framework enables the schools to allocate resources in order to help in circumstances where need is greatest. Through a good implementation plan, funds are allocated towards this process and can as we be funded as a project on its own. Investments by the school on psychologists would prove very beneficial to the institution. The teaching fraternity becomes more effective in executing this objective and in the long run, it is the student who stands to gain from the whole project. This is therefore fundamental in curriculum development and implementation. Test scores correlate with STEEP assessments. This provides an effective warning system on children likely to pose dismal performance.
Class wide assessment ensures that thorough examination of an educational or even a cultural disadvantage is adequately examined. Time probes in Mathematics as well as reading. The questions are allocated time intervals depending on the curriculum objective. According to VanDerHeyden (2001), classroom context negatively affects the accuracy of the teacher referral. The accuracy level of the teacher in the process of identifying students who either had or did not have problem in high-achieving and low-achieving classrooms. STEEP ensure greater accuracy in both low-achieving as well as high-achieving classrooms. There is a well designed web-based data management that help the teachers and other stakeholders make crucial decisions about the students. Student monitoring helps the teachers keep track of the performance of these students.
Some of the students may not be fit for the program and may require special education specialist intervention. Those students who have been determined, sincerely, to need special specialist intervention are referred at this stage of the model. The student could have been identified at either the performance deficit evaluation stage or failure to record sound improvement at the individual level stage. Timely referral is crucial if sound achievements are to be realized. Adequate and effective communication, explanation and counseling have to be done to both the students and parents on why referral system is involved in the intervention. Failure to support and explain the reason may affect the students both emotionally and socially. Before referral decision is arrived, the student is evaluated to rule out the possibility of social factors or educational factors. These factors should be addressed at the individual intervention level, and an effective strategy to neutralize them instituted.
In many cases, the population or proportion of the students referred for special educational needs should not be exceptionally high. In cases where the population is high, inferences should be focused on educational, social or environmental factors. Very low standards of performance in a single institution compared to the national ranking may also reflect institutional factors. Effective intervention being based on the evaluation will require that the students undergo an evaluation program of not less than 10 to 15 tests. It is also advisable that the tests capture several avenues of performance evaluation (Blazejowski, 2011).
Rationale for using STEEP Model
The use of the research design model in supporting the initiative is motivated by a number of reasons. The model has been described by Witt and Vanderheyden as a design that provides high quality instruction/intervention which is oriented for a student addressing the student’s desires. Using STEEP will enable the evaluation team to gather the information that draws evidence from learning rate for a given duration and level of performance. The evaluation will enable the evaluation team to make first and sound decision about the implementation and effectiveness of the initiated program.
The model offers a fast intervention and evaluation to the students’ rights from their class. The classroom intervention is pivotal in determining at an early stage the needs that students may require at every stage of education. This will enable teams to institute intervention program at an early stage timely enough to avoid exacerbation of the problem. This will be a vital for teachers since their mode of teaching will be focused and students oriented.
The referral of students with specific educational needs will assist the students in a risk of declining educational performance. As outline in the special education model, students are classified or not categorized as learners as needy or not. This enables teachers to determine the specific type of the child either as lack of motivation or inability to handle the task in a normal educational setup. Timely referral system will enable the learner to seek special education need at a stage early enough, avoiding irrational time wastage with inappropriate interventional approaches.
Using these model teachers will benefit from gathering information for instructional planning. The needs for every learner are identified and categorization of the problems done to assist in designing an approach that will help in addressing student based difficulties in the learning process. Among the lower levels of learning, the program has been used as the foundation framework of analyzing and addressing the institutional approach intervention in curriculum implementation. Therefore, using it at higher level of education will offer a challenge in exploring the effectiveness of the proposed program. Moreover, information gathered with using this research model is imperative in enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of institutional board meetings (Iwasiw, & Andrusyszyn et al, 2005).
The model is easy to intermarry with the state strategic plan of learning the institutions. Carrying out evaluation and interventions in class will help in warning the students of poor performance in the national administered evaluation test. In most cases, after a course, the students are expected to sit for unifying examination offered by the professional board. Consistent relegation in class may contribute to motivating students to avoid failing the most critical evaluation test. Consequently, students boost their learning effort which culminates to improving performance at different levels of the learning cycle.
The model uses commercially available method of assessment test and measurement making it easy to implement. The model is also conversant with several teachers in the learning institutions. The model tests have been validated in several studies by a number of researchers increasing its reliability in screening students. The referral system involves a step wise evaluation that reduces that number of cases forwarded to the special education docket. The learners undergo a gated process with the aim of ruling out the students who genuinely require the intervention.Therefore, using STEEP offers standard set of decision guidelines and rules that will help in operating the initiative program discussed in question one.
The data collection process and the form of data collected will make the effectiveness of determining the validity of the program. Therefore, the choice of data should be done carefully and precisely. This will ensure that the results being obtained are valid and reliable. Wrong data may lead to long interpretation of the program deeming it invalid. This can be avoided by employing different approaches of data correction, recording, and interpretation. The data method employed in this design to collect data involves interview, focus group discussion, review of the records in the institutions. Primary data will be crucial in determining the stand of the program in the current situation while secondary data will be used to validate and draw the conclusion from a historical perspective. In addition, secondary data will be crucial in determining the performance of the students for a long period of time, thus, justifying the decision initiated for intervention purposes.
Interview (Axinn, & Pearce, 2006).
Interview will be conducted to a number of stakeholders overseeing the implementation of the program. Students will be interviewed in order to determine the program effectiveness from their own perspective of judgment. Students will be expected to determine reasons hindering performance. Stating the reasons will offer an ideal platform for determining an immediate intervention from for the problem? This data will be crucial to differentiate the cause. For instance, a condition where a student may say do not feel like doing the test, studying hard to improve performance, cannot achieve any better mark, or it is difficult to handle this, or that will indicate poor motivational programs within the institution. It needs to be noted that students are the crucial stakeholders in the process of intervention. Involving fully will play a vital role in the intervention process (Isaacs, 2003).
The second group to be interviewed includes the teachers. The teachers are in direct interaction with the students. They are in better position to describe the performance and behavioral aspect of the students. Through observation, they are able to determine characteristics of the students that can be significant in influencing on the students’ performance. For instance, the teachers will be relied on to give encounter on discipline of the students, participation in class, areas of weakness and strength and interaction of the poor students with their fellow classmates. Teachers will be expected to give their own view of the implementation of the program. Collaboration of teachers in the teaching, evaluation and implementation process will also be crucial information to gather through interview. Interviewing the teachers will cut across all levels of teaching levels from the principal, class-teacher, psychology teacher and other significant staffs involved in the program. Other stakeholders being interviewed include parents and board members. These stakeholders will be vital in offering their evaluation from an external perspective. The interview may be carried out over the phone or on one evaluation (Axinn, & Pearce, 2006).
This involves gathering data from recorded document, website, journal and other reliable and relevant secondary sources. Thorough data search on will be done on the documented information. The information to be evaluated in this section will be supportive information on performance trend. This will function as supportive information to validate the interview information. Using both primary and secondary data will be crucial in bridging time difference factor which may affect the result of the study (Wolf, & Christensen, 2007).
How to Evaluate, Analyze and Report Data
Data gathered from the respondents and records will be supported using students’ evaluation test and measures. Evaluation of the students’ achievement will be determined by used of mastery measurement and curriculum-based measurement (CBM) will be used in evaluation of the program. CBM will be used to evaluate the ability of the students to excel in reading, spelling and arithmetic. This will form the basis of determining where the students are able to improve their achievement in academic (Lightbown & Spada, 2006). The competency in reading signifies student’s ability to comprehend instructions. In addition, CBM will be the most suitable approach to track academic trend through comparing the sets of evaluation test. Documented data covering performance results will be the source of data. According to Fuchs and Stecker, 2003, CBM targets at improving individual learner’s achievement. Use of CBM has also been associated with improved results.
Mastery measurement will be used parallel to CBM to act as a check list for the CBM measures. Using one measurement approach may be inhibited by a number of external factors in the institution. Different from the CBM, mastery measurement are established by the teachers themselves to target students at different levels. Therefore, validity of this measurement has been principle question among a number of researchers (Fuchs & Stecker, 2003). The teachers will be expected to formulate the measurement with reference to the educational sequence of the institution. Therefore, evaluation using this approach will be more appropriate to adopt since the teachers understand their students. Combining the two methods (mastery measurement and CBM) will help in diluting flaws of single methods, thus, complimenting each other.
In evaluation, student performance on the set measures and standards of evaluation will be compared with those of other students in the institution (Isaacs, 2003). The general performance of the class and the institution will be gauged in reference to the expected state or national standards. Comparing the performance with other institution will validate the performance of the institution and gauge the ranking of the institution in reference to other institute at the same level. This will help in determining the appropriateness of the established standards. In cases where the general performance is way below the national standards or that of like-leveled, the institution will have to reevaluate the measurement used or the approaches used in teaching. This could indicate a problem with the institution rather than students’ based challenges.
Analysis of the data will be used by employing staffs that are familiar with the model being used. The analyzed data will be presented in the form of tables, charts and graphs indicating the progress of the learners. Chart presenting performance and relation of data from a number of students will be adequate for drawing comparative conclusion. This will ensure that the students’ performances are judged from a perspective of students who exposed to similar educational environment.
CBM enhances reporting of data focusing on the students’ improvement levels. CBM has been associated with precise, honest and reliable results about academic levels of improvement. In reporting the results, systematic arrangement of facts and results will be emphasized to ensure that the target group understands the expected information. Failure to communicate effectively will lead to poor intervention of the program. Ethical consideration will also be observed in the reporting of the obtained data. The data will be coded to meet confidentiality, privacy and anonymity where necessary. At individual levels, data and information of the students’ performance and progress will be shared among the teachers to ensure that a collaborative approach is employed in solving the students’ problems. Several Teachers intervening with the students will enhance accelerated achievement for the students (Isaacs, 2003).
What Results would Cause you Identify this Research Model as one Suited to Accurately Assess Your Plan?
Curriculum intervention progress evaluation and monitoring is an imperative step in determining the effectiveness of the program, areas that need amendments and identifying learners that need more specialized approach. A good model in monitoring the initiative is characterized being available in compatible mode with the institution program. The model should yield consistent trend results, holding other variables constant when implemented at different times. In addition, the model should be easy to implement to ensure that even the class teachers can oversee the implementation.
The targeted results that will enable me identify this model as the most appropriate one include the following;
The model is expected to demonstrate intermarriage between the program and the institution system of education. The model is also expected to illustrate the areas of reinforcement that need to be revisited either before or during the implementation. For this model to be chosen as the best approach for assessing the initiative program there should be a strong correlation between the model and the program. Individuals who are expected to implement the intervention program should also be in a position to institute the model. This will play a significant role in reducing the cost of training the implementers.
The most important aim of the program was to address the issue of poor performance among the learners. Therefore, the result showing a program with strong advocacy of the learners will support the choice of selecting the model to assess the initiative intervention program. The focus of both the model and the program should be focused on determining the measures and strategies of improving performance. Advocacy of the learner should be clearly illustrated in the result. The interest of the learners should take preference even in the implementation of the design. Ability to illustrate and demonstrate this fact is crucial in choice of the best model.
The model should also give result illustrating a clear criterion on the classification of students into different categories of needs. The different gates in the model will play a significant role in determining the referral students for special education consultation. Filtering process being effective is comprehensive. None student should be overlooked or down looked for their performance, but rather should illustrate an effective categorization. In addition, this model should be supported adequately by previous researches and summative information and conclusion given about the model. In conclusion, the model should demonstrate the ability to identify learners who need intervention; the measures offered should be in line with the intervention program and improvement framework delineated.
Post-Secondary Education is for everyone
Learning is a continuous process. Education on the other hand is highly dependent on the institutional framework. The education sector is divided into different hierarchical levels where students have to pass evaluation tests for them to be allowed to join the upper level in their educational hierarchy. In most parts of the world, individuals have adopted a culture of pursuing education in order to excel in their lives. It is no doubt that education is believed to be the key to brighter future and greater acceleration in life advancements. It is through this philosophy that several countries have identified basic education as a obligatory child right. In America for instance, schooling is mandatory through age sixteen years or up to when certificate of completion is granted. Enforcing the basic education level involves teaching students’ a combination of subjects aimed to help the students acquire basic survival knowledge. Of paramount essence is the centrality of post secondary education that should remain focused as is the objective of any type of any curriculum development and implementation process.
Post-secondary education is a schooling program that is offered after the completion of secondary course of education. In most cases, post secondary education is optional, and neither the government nor the society has the mandate to impose penalties or punishment to those who fail to join secondary schools. Different from basic and enforcing education, post secondary education narrows down to a specialized subject. Avenues of post-secondary education includes diploma qualification, undergraduate, graduate, seminaries and technical skill studies. The purpose of post-secondary education is to prepare the students and equip them with needed job skills (McCombs, & Miller, 2007).
This is the level where knowledge and skill necessary in dispatching certain job responsibilities in a professional way are acquired. Students have optional subjects based expressly on what they would like to pursue at post-secondary educational level depending on their career goals and dreams. The importance of post-secondary education in the society has witnessed mixed interests. Philosophies discounting the purpose and significance of the studies and those supporting the system have been documented since time immemorial. This section of the project will focus of delineating the reason for existence, purpose and how they post-secondary education helps students to meet their needs.
What are Your Own Premises when Discussing the Reason for Higher Education Institutions Existence?
(i) Preparing the students for the job market
The first premise for the support of existence of higher education institutes (HEI) come under the role of institutions. Higher education institutes play a paramount role in developing professionalism. Students are given the chance to further their knowledge and skills in these institutions thereby being exposed to specialist trainers. The ability to choose and major on one subject enables students to follow their passion dreams and thus growing in the profession. Without such institutions, the recruit at the job market would increase the cost of running the organization. This is because a lot of resources and time will be invested in training the recruit to meet the job requirement (Marx, 2006).
Most of the operational ones of ninety percent of all professional courses are developed during the post-secondary education. For instance, it would be extremely difficult for professions such as law, medicine, and engineering to rely on secondary education in their operation. Therefore, the existences of Higher Education Institutes in a nation or the world at large have enabled students to acquire professional skills. In some cases, it is during this level that learners realize their strength and talents in a given direction. This is witnessed if the student was not exposed well enough in his or her pre-secondary period.
(ii) Research Purposes
Institutions of higher learning are the basic avenues for research studies. Most of the institutions have parallel programs that motivate both their students and lecturers to engage in research work. Problems that affect the society are investigated at institutions of higher education with the aim of arriving at appropriate as well as realistic remedies. Therefore, the institutions enable the community to advance and solve these problems through products of extensive research work from these institutions. Specializing on one line of education enables the professionals to focus on the areas determined to be problematic in the functioning of the institution. In this connection, the institutions are incredibly significant. Secondary school graduates cannot be relied on to carry out research deemed to address the needs of the society. The level of education does not even address the basic mechanisms of carrying out research.
With the current trend of development, new mechanism and approaches in addressing issues in the society have to be innovated. Some of the researches that are done in these institutions include technological advancement, market trends and approaches in addressing medical conditions in the society. An example of a discovery that was made while the investor was in the post –secondary institution is the common social site referred to as Facebook by Mark Zuckerbugh and his college mates at Harvard University launched eight years ago. Institutions such as the Oxford University and Harvard University are well known for their advancement in the field of developing researchers in the world.
Institutes of higher learning offer an excellent avenue for employment opportunities in the society. The employees working in these institutions are numerous and losing these institutions can exacerbate the unemployment rates in the society. These institutions offer both direct and indirect employment opportunities. The direct opportunities are open to the staff working in these institutions. These include lecturers, professors, supportive staff in the institutions, and the administration docket. Employment enables individual to lift their standard of living and in most cases extend the benefit through employing other individuals in their ventures and home. Most of these employee
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