Surrealism refers to a cultural movement that was instigated in Paris, France majorly in the early days of civilization around 1920s. Surrealism can be looked at citing references from the cultural practices of different countries and their way of livelihood. It mainly focuses on artistic works of different individuals, authors and poets since it is a phenomenon that is vastly known for visual artworks and various writings that have an influence on peoples’ lives and their ways of cultural practices. In most instances, the main logic behind surrealism is the factor of surprise incorporation so as to capture various aspects that constitute the wholistic cultural and political context. It further entails the use of sculptures and images that are meant to express a person’s feelings and emotion towards certain stimuli in their environment. This movement was incorporated during the World War 1 in Paris and with time, it spread to other regions of the globe, thus having different effects on many nations. For instance, it affected the visual artworks as well as the literature filming and music of different genres that influence political thought, practices, philosophy and social theory. In addition, surrealism act to provide deep symbolism especially through the refined pictures and paintings techniques so as to capture some aspect of thought, feeling or expression of emotions, (Breton, 1924).
Surrealism is so much linked to symbolism though it is so much expressionistic in nature. This is very evident particularly from German movement that was evidenced by lots of emotion and personality.Nevertheless; it could be argued that symbolism required the use of language to evoke rather than describing something and to offer suggestions whenever necessary rather than creating the actual mood and environment. In France there were different categories of Surrealists including females ones who were also engrossed in the whole work of producing artifacts’ and works of poetry though it was mainly known to be a male dominated profession. With the momentum that was acquired such that surrealism got to spread in Europe, it had various implications until it finally diminished during the periods of world wars 1 and 2 dues to serious factors that included a major division between the communist and the bourgeois communities due to serious allegations of rationalism that affected the political inclination of these countries that had fostered the world war to take place. In this context, surrealism served as a unifying means especially between the conscious and sub-conscious levels in the society so as to form a rational foundation that could act as guide in the entire world that people dwell and call society.
Being a form of art that shows and expresses people’s emotion and feeling, surrealism in most cases can be approached at using various techniques to ascertain its effectiveness and reliability in the whole context of providing meaningful interpretation to works of art. Some of the techniques applied can be enlisted as follows,
There is the use of automatism technique, which involves the surrealist writing in such a way that he or she captures and explains the unconscious. Under this method, there the use of pure personal judgments that doesn’t involve any form of manipulation from third parties. The person writing will further consider his or her free flow of words so as to express extensively what opinion he holds about certain issues and why everything is the way they are at the moment of writing. This technique is based on the fact that surrealism is all about being expressive and will involve the surrealist writing from their own perspective rather than depending on what the entire society expects them to write and explain.Thus, this is a true reflection of what one would expect in instances where there’s need for total satisfaction of one’s thought and relieving of deep insight emotions, (Dawn, 2001).
Secondly, we have the technique of exquisite cadaver that usually entails the surrealist making drawings that further are used to derive various meanings depending on the setting of the whole idea used. It further entails personal work such that the person making these drawings does not borrow any references to any form of work that was done by other previous authors particularly in the same field. It therefore involves original thought and work that is further analyzed so as to derive meaningful conclusions that may form a basis of study.
Additionally, we also have another technique referred to as the method of paranoiac critical transformation that majorly involved the ability of seeing multiple images from a given configuration. This method involves the surrealist to identify the best of his or her wok and be in a position to select the one stands out from the rest. This is an important technique since it offers great insight to one’s poetic work and enables the surrealist to establish new and better ways of interacting and viewing the environment and the world around them in a whole new and enhanced dimension. It facilities cross dimensional thinking since it limits any element of passivity in preparation of any form of artwork.Thus,surrealism can be closely engrossed to this method in the sense that it also aids in establishing better, efficient ways of drawing perceptions,judgement and conclusions.
Despite the numerous contributions brought about by this movement, there are also several critisms that underlie this movement of surrealism. Owing to the fact that it is expressionistic in nature, it may lead to undue bias in the society if everyone was allowed to say and express their emotions. This is so because people tend to differ in their personalities and thinking. Another critism of this movement is the fact that it tend to discriminate the feminine gender since it was like a known fact that the work of art and designing pictures was a male dominated area and profession. In conclusion, it is very crucial to identify the various reasons why certain artworks are in existence and be in a position to derive meaningful conclusions from them without relying on other people’s views and judgement.This will help limit any form of manipulation from any source, (Louis, 1974).