Before the 1940s, the efforts by American Indians to organize themselves at the national level always turned out to be unsuccessful. Although they had formed some organizations, they used to be unproductive. Some of these organizations included the Teepee Order of America and the Society of American Indian. With the aim to make an improvement in their lives, American Indians sought to develop several institutions which could address their needs. As Wilkinson notes, “the formation of the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) in 1944 acted as a remarkable achievement for the improvement of the lives of American Indians.” 1 During the twentieth century, American Indians enhanced and improved their lives through the organizations they formed. The organizations championed for tribal sovereignty as well as autonomy of the Indians in the United States. As people who seemed disposed, the Indians played an instrumental role in ensuring that their nation thrived in the United States. 1
Thedetermination ofAmerican Indians and their involvement in the movements served to strengthen the movements and ensured that they gained representation, just like other American citizens.1 In a bid to have their rights recognized by the rest of the United States, American Indians united with the sole aims of gaining autonomy in governance and recognition of their fundamental rights. The leadership of the movements and organizations of American Indians also helped in the improvement of the lives of American Indians. Leaders such as Hank Adams united the Indian community and helped them gain self-determination. American Indians also sought to improve their lives during the twentieth century with the formation of community advocacy groups. These groups were instrumental in creating awareness among the American Indians and rallying the community together to achieve common goals.