To begin with, homeland security is a special body which incorporates different governmental agencies of the United States to prevent any kind of terror and threat to the American population. In this respect it deals both with the disasters coming from human beings and from the environment. The birth and evolution of homeland security is under special analysis of this paper. Thus, after the events of September 11, 2001 the need for the internal security body grew up eventually; and now this agency has all the mechanisms to react quickly on any kind of threat in any area of the US.
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First off, since the events of 9/11 the collapse of the American security system which was thought to be the best in the world was apparent. In this case the administration of the President George Bush Jr. took into account all possible ideas and measures so that to attack the problem. On the other hand, Americans also suffer from an abundance of natural disasters taking place in the country (especially East Coast and southern states). The example of Hurricane Katrina that almost wiped New Orleans out fits into discussion. By and large, homeland security is federal-centric organization playing a significant role “in the areas of counterterrorism, preparedness, and disaster response” (Mayer 2010, 1).
On the other side, since the birth of this structure its evolution became visible in using all internal resources throughout the states so that to be always ready to confront the disaster. The United States Department of Homeland Security is the central body responsible to keep a strict eye on the situation in the country (DHS 2012). On the other hand, safety of American people is the highest priority of the President of the United States (The White House 2012). All in all, homeland security is a system which consists of different agencies which in sum serve both for prevention of any danger and also for emergency cases if the attack is too powerful and spontaneous.
To be precise, the Homeland Advisory System was created on March 12, 2002 as a Presidential Directive to provide a “comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people” (Ibp Usa 2003, 7). Hence, the first requirement is to keep terrorism out of the United States. The second stage in the evolution of homeland security was to minimize human risks before the natural elements. The latter is considered the number two national security threat. Hence, funding this organization created some new structures within it. Along with the United States National Guard, the need for the Federal Emergency Management Agency grew up eventually (Miskel 2006).
However, as many researchers think, the homeland security prospects should not be concentrated solely to the federal responsibility due to the fact that on the level of states and localities the reaction could be even faster to any threat of terrorism and natural disaster. A respectful attitude to states and localities with paying less attention to Washington is, perhaps, the next step in the evolution of homeland security (Mayer 2010). Otherwise, there is a pit of mismatches in which Americans may fall once again due to tardiness and ineffectiveness of reaction.
Turning back to the main aspect of the organizational development, alongside the major agencies the National Incident Management System (NIMS) was added on March 1, 2004 (Ibp Usa 2003, 9). It was a good initiative to coordinate and provide effective communication between federal, state, and local structures under one system of disaster prevention. Moreover, it bears an all-hazards preventive approach for the vast majority of Americans living in the country-side territories. Effectiveness of preparedness of all agencies belonging to homeland security was always at the core since the organization was founded.
This is why the process of development of all structures within homeland security needs more improvement as it should follow the cutting-edge standards of security itself. Moreover, there should be more access to FBI and CIA on the part of the United States Department of Homeland Security. In coherence of all agencies there are more possibilities of winning time and human lives before the attack takes place. Today, the nation recovers from the outcomes of the Hurricane Sandy which left much to be desired. Conversely, along with 187 federal agencies included to homeland security system, Americans still feel the possibility of threats (DHS, 2012).
Insofar, President Obama announced and then fulfilled by means of homeland security the first-coming strategies to strengthen the system and improve on well-being of Americans. Some among them are: “strategy to fight transnational organized crime”; “federal response efforts following the BP oil spill in the Gulf”; “a new U.S.-Mexico border initiative”; and “Surface Transportation Security Assessment” (The White House 2012, 1). The risk is still growing from all sides of the national security. However, the evolution of the homeland security system is also growing in the development and in-time funding of current agencies along with some new agencies to be added for the sake of a more widened approach toward terrorism and natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, tornados, and hurricanes) nationwide.
Given that, since the events of 9/11 after which the homeland security program was established to protect America from the threats of terrorism, the organization’s another goal has become the prevention of population from the natural disasters of any kind. With different agencies within the organization and the federal support thereof homeland security is still a hallmark of the national internal security ever been created in the US.
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