In the United States substances that are controlled by state authorities are included into the Controlled Substances Act. Though they may impact human behavior and health in a similar way, the substances are divided into five distinct categories due to particularities of their effect on humans. The list is organized in a hierarchic structure according to the strength of their influence, beginning with the most dangerous ones. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2012) the controlled substances include the following ones: “opiates, opiate derivatives, hallucinogens, stimulants, depressants, and anabolic steroids”.
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The substances may cause the following reactions to humans: “opiates, or narcotic drugs—an euphoric rush, followed by relaxation and relief of physical pain” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p. 40), “treat pain, cough and diarrhea, put people to sleep” and also “a psychological dependence, slow breathing or a fatal overdose” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p. 34); “hallucinogens—alter mood, distort the thought associated with time and space” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p. 58), “colors perception change, “flashbacks” of the drug use experience” and, sometimes—“deaths from acute overdose” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p. 59); “stimulants—speed up the body systems producing sensation of “rush” or “flash” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p. 42), “produce a sense of exaltation, enhance self esteem, improve mental and physical performance, increase activity” and “agitation, hostility, panic, aggression, and paranoia—in chronic or high-dose users” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011,43) ; “depressants—put one to sleep, relieve anxiety, prevent seizures, treat insomnia” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p. 50), “cause amnesia, reduction of one’s reaction time, and impair mental functioning, judgment, speech function, and motor coordination” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p.51); and “anabolic steroids—may cause mood and behavioral effects, treat testosteron deficiency and low red blood cell count, enhance athletic or other physical performance, and improve physical appearance etc” (U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2011, p. 70).
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