In the United States, cybercrime has turned out to be very widespread. It is listed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the third key significant national security, main concern following counterintelligence and counterterrorism. There are different kinds of cybercrime encompassing hacking (computer invasion), piracy, online predators, and academic property theft amongst others.
Hacking is the most common type of cybercrime. There are various types of hackers and they include script kiddies, hacktivists, white hat hackers, black hat hackers, cyber terrorists, spy hackers, and state sponsored hackers. Although these hackers are worrisome and dangerous except white hat hackers, cyber terrorists are deemed as the most dangerous and the most troublesome to the national security. According to Moore (2005), cyber terrorists are normally motivated by political and religious values, and they try to generate chaos and fear by disturbing significant infrastructures (Wozny, 2011). Besides, cyber terrorists have a wide array of goals and skills and they aim at spreading terror, fear in addition to committing murders.
Cyber security encompasses the protection of information through avoiding, identifying and taking actions in case of attacks. Regrettably, although strict precautions have been employed, this has not assured protection from cyber attacks. Nevertheless, there is a number of risk alleviation tactics, which can be used to overcome the involvement of cyber terrorists in information functions against the country and its critical infrastructures. The initial step as offered by the US-CERT is risk recognition and becoming familiar with the linked terminologies, including hackers, malicious codes such as Trojan, worms and viruses (Secure Community Network, 2005). Other risk alleviation strategies as offered by the “National Cyber Security Alliance” (NCSA) encompass employing antivirus software, setting up and updating web browser software and operating systems regularly, employing strong passwords and backing up essential files (Secure Community Network, 2005).
There is a number of ways in which the United States can deal with cyber terrorists. One way encompasses the use of law and regulations, which ensures that actions are taken upon this kind of hackers. “Computer Fraud and Abuse Act” is one of the laws in the United States, which aims at preventing the hacking behavior of cyber terrorists. Those who are reported to have been involved in hacking are punished by either imprisonment or huge fines (Bonilla and Cintean, 2012). In addition to this, the United States’ Department of Defense (DoD) has a responsibility of fighting cyber terrorism. In order to accomplish this, the capacities of the Global Network Operations are incorporated into functioning of the DoD systems, networks and computers that are employed by combatant agencies, services and commands. The leader of the cyber security in the United States has the role of coordinating the efforts of the military and government to deter hackers. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is a government agency that has the roles of investigating, tracking and capturing hackers. In addition, the U.S. government has established a Cyber Division with the intention of addressing cyber crime (Bonilla and Cintean, 2012).
Cloud-based computing model provides software based on the web design, computing resources and middleware on order. The U.S. government can use the cloud-based computing, since it helps the agencies to shift from possessing paraphernalia and running data zones, IT applications and operations (GCN, 1996). As an alternative, they are capable of seeking high IT services with a high performance to achieve computing ability, storage and usage requirements, with no worries concerning the maintenance, infrastructure and personnel necessities of an objective IT atmosphere. It is a provision for the United States’ agencies that helps them in realization of efficiencies, innovation and expenditure savings not including having to enlarge capital income or its accessible infrastructures (GCN, 1996). This cloud computing furthermore helps the United States’ government in quicker deployment of the systems, quicker information access, improved output, scalability, enhanced vulnerability evaluation and better self-service (GCN, 1996).
There are four types of cloud models, namely the public cloud, community cloud, private cloud and the hybrid cloud. The most advisable type of cloud model to be used for inter-agency relations is the community cloud that shares information among several parties from a particular society having the same concerns like conformity, security and authority, whether handled within or through an intermediary and taken care of externally or internally. The expenses are extended over less consumers compared to a public cloud, and as a result, just a number of the savings on the cost possible of cloud computing are recognized.
In addition, a good method model to be used for the critical infrastructure's public-private partnership is the Hybrid cloud that composes of two or more clouds, for example, the community, public or private clouds, which are exceptional units, except that they are bound jointly, presenting the advantages of many models.
Software piracy is the unlawful replication of software programs (2012 Medilaw. TV, 2012). It is an international issue and studies have proven that over eleven billion U.S. dollars are lost as a result of piracy each year. Software piracy is prevalent, as it is simple to generate a similar replica of a program from the same computer (Medilaw.TV, 2012). It is a crime to illegally copy software programs, and in the United States as well as among other nations, copyright laws have strict criminal and civil penalties for the unlawful copying or distribution of reproduced materials. Reproduced materials encompass computer programs, together with associated images, sounds and texts. According to Simmons and Tan (2002), the levels of software piracy are more widespread outside the United States, as a result of the divergences in copyright laws, cultural norms, enforcement entities, the complexity in putting into effect domestic standards international and the economic posture of a nation and its citizens.
Unlike in the United States where software programs developers suffer from losing possible income to unlawful vendors, developing nations are suffering, since their research property trade is challenged (Simmons and Tan, 2002). Reduction in piracy will later be a gain to the U.S., thereby escalating the short-term earnings, whereas host nations will profit afterwards, as they reinforce their bazaar, remunerate ability and turn out to be extra competitive in the worldwide arena. Termed as the application of Software creation without remunerating, those possessing the brains, the rates in software piracy differ by nations (Simmons and Tan, 2002). The Business Software Alliance gauges piracy to be the fraction of unauthorized software that is being utilized. The degree of piracy in the United States is the lowest (25%), whereas nations possessing the maximum piracy degrees are Vietnam (97%), seconded by China (94%) and finally, Indonesia (89%). This information shows that apart from greediness or deficiency in funds to explain for these disparities, there may be other causes (Simmons and Tan, 2002).
In a country such as China, there are various enacted laws that prevent piracy. The legal system of China is however different from that of the United States. In the latter, the legal system encompasses rule by law, whereas in China, there is a rule by power and person (Kristof and Wudunn, 1994). The Confucian code in China does not stress compliance to the law, meaning that piracy level in China is very high. The United States enforce piracy laws strictly, whilst other nations generally center on employing the law as a way of avoidance, thus, enforcement is not that strict.