Botany identifies a fruit as part of a flowering plant. Usually, due to fruits most plants disseminate seeds. These plants that bear fruits may also propagate because of human and animal activities in a symbiotic relationship. In fact, human beings have grown to rely on fruits as a source of food (Kalz, 2004). No wonder, fruits accounts for a substantial portion of the world’s agricultural output. A fruit could be defined as the fleshy and sweet part of the plant. We often refer to culinary fruits. These fruits are considered edible in some cuisines. However, not all fruits are sweet. Some fruits like lemons and oranges are sour (Bodach, 2012).
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The taste of the fruit depends on the compounds present in it. Fruits often comprise of complex materials such as cellulose, vitamins, starch, specific acids, or fructose. As a rule, these materials account for a substantial part of the fruit. They are usually mixed in specific proportions within the fruit. Therefore, different fruits have different proportions of the materials. Those fruits that contain more fructose within the mixture are sweeter. On the hand, fruits that taste sour often comprise of a larger portion of acid. Some fruits have both sweet and sour taste due to the mixture of almost equal portions of fructose and acid.
Furthermore, most raw fruits have a high portion of acids. For this very reason, raw fruits often taste sour. However, as the fruit ripens, the level of acid reduces and the amount of sugar content increases considerably (Giovannoni, 2004). This explains why most ripen fruits taste sweet. For instance, raw bananas often taste sweet. When they are raw, they usually contain high levels of starch. However, as they ripen, the starch is converted to fructose. This explains why the banana becomes sweeter when it ripens. Thus, chemical changes are in charge of the sweetness of the fruit. In some cases, the same type of the fruit might have different tastes. This is because of the different proportions of the compounds that are contained in the fruit. Moreover, other factors influence the taste; they include the soil fertility, climate, method of cultivation, and access to water. Some fruits, such as lemons, often have sour taste even after ripening. This is because the level of the acids remains higher even after the fruit ripens. Fruits that have no specific taste often contain minimal levels of the mixture. Their levels of fructose and acid are minimal and cannot be felt when tasting the fruit.
The development and ripening of fruits form an indispensable stage of the plant maturity. Botanists suppose that the fruit is identified as a mature ovary (McDonald, 2012). As the plant grows and yields fleshy fruits, it equally develops mature fruit tissues. The following fruits are considered to contain those tissues, for instance, strawberries, pineapples, apple, and pears. However, before these mature seeds develop into a new plant, they must be detached from the pods. The plants naturally disperse by exploding to release seeds. As a rule, the fruit of the plant scatters seeds directly to the ground. Moreover, fruits of buoyant plants usually disperse their seeds by producing small amounts of water while some plants have wing-like husks and their fruits can disperse seeds by the wind. There is another means of dispersing plants that is animal intrusion. The animal often serves as a carrier of the seeds. Usually, such seeds are sticky or have hooks and bristles that can stick to the animal’s fur and be scattered around. However, some plants can be are eaten by animals and birds and then discarded. Thus, the animal or bird may also eat fleshy fruits together with seeds. In this case, seeds will not be digested and they are ejected with the droppings. The seeds are usually dispersed far away from the parent plant and, thus, they occupy larger territories (Benech-Arnold & Sanchez, 2004). Therefore, it is imperative that such plants should have fruits that are attractive to animals. For instance, when plants ripen, they develop fruits that have sweet and attractive smell because of increased ethanol content in them. They also change their color, which increases animals’ attention significantly. As a result, fruits become sweet. These factors make the animals eat the fruit and, thus, dispersing it. In as much way, humans play a significant role in dispersing the seeds. They feed on the fruits and discard the seeds. At times, humans consume the fruits together with the seeds. Naturally, the seeds have an insoluble coat, which prevents them from being digested. This way, the interference is observed to enhance the process of dispersal.
In conclusion, it would be imperative to consider that seeds contain starch or fructose in fruits for its metabolism. To begin with, it would be mindful to admit that starch is arguably the most abundant carbohydrate that stores energy. However, due to its insoluble nature, it has to be to be digested by the plant before it is used. The process involves the enzymes, which are present within the plant cells. The starch evolved produces glucose through biosynthesis. This process is usually referred to as hydrolysis. During this process, starch is broken down into simpler forms such as fructose before it is metabolized. Fructose is a simple sugar and can be metabolized directly by the plant. However, fructose and starch are not contained in the fruit. The leaves always act as food reserves for the plants. They provide the plant with minerals it requires for metabolism. It should be noted that plants seeds do not obtain starch or fructose from the fruits. Germinating seeds often obtain energy through aerobic respiration. In the process of anaerobic respiration, the complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars. Simple sugars are then metabolized to provide energy for the plant. In fact, the simple sugar in plants, fructose, has a chemical formula that correlates to, glucose, the simple sugar in animals. Starch is a polysaccharide in plants that serves to store energy in form of glucose. The plant often stores the starch in seeds.
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