Free «Western civilization study» Essay Sample


Renaissance is literally defined as rebirth. It especially refers to rebirth and learning that began in Italy in 14th century spreading to the north that included England, by 16th century which ended in north, 17th century earlier in Italy. During the 17th century, interest renewal was enormous, and the study was classical antiquity. However, the Renaissance was more than rebirth. It was a new age for discoveries, both the geographical and exploration of New World and the intellectual. The kinds of discovery also result in the changes of the tremendous import for the western civilization (Spielvogel, 2011). When it comes to science, for instance, Copernicus in 1473-1543 also attempted in proving the sun rather than earth was the center of the planetary system thus radically that altering cosmic world view that dominated antiquity and middle ages. When talking about religion, Martin Luther 1483-1546 challenged and eventually caused division of one key institution which had united Europe all through middle ages in the church. In fact, Renaissance thinkers always often thought of themselves as ushering in the modern age, as the distinct from ancient medieval eras.

According to the argument, renaissance might be well centered on the five interrelated issues, to begin with, even though Renaissance thinkers still tried associating themselves with the classical antiquity and the dissociate themselves from middle ages, important continuities with the recent past, such belief in Great Chain of Being were still much evidence. Also, during the same period, certain significant or prominent political changes also took place (Spielvogel, 2012). Further, in the same period, he argues that, some ideas from the noblest ideals of the period being best expressed by humanism movement. Humanist ideals were then literary imitation doctrine, necessary for ideas on how literacy doctrine of imitation as, vital for ideas on how literacy works is to be created. Finally, it probably became a far reaching influence, both from the literacy and creation and modern or general life, was a religious movement that was known as the Reformation.

The thinkers strongly associate themselves with values of the classical antiquity, particularly, as the expressed in newly rediscovered classics of the literature, history and moral philosophy. Conversely, the classics tended to dissociate themselves from the works written in middle ages and historical period that was looked upon instead negatively. According to the middle ages, they were set in the middle of more than valuable historical periods, antiquity with their own. Nonetheless, as the modern scholars noted, extremely vital continuities with the previous age also existed.

In what ways was the Renaissance truly a “rebirth,” that is a rehashing of old knowledge and perspectives

The argument portrays Modernity as the elusive concept for it is understood that the trivial sense that each and every age is new. However, it might carry implicit biases on the relationship between recent or (modernus) and the ancient (antiques). There is a consideration of Renaissance commonly at the point of transition between the modern and medieval Europe that is true enough if considered Medieval and also modern to describe the chronological periods, however, errors instigate when there is the imposition of certain connotations and modernity onto the historical relations. On such a connotation, the view of the past is best embryonic modern state society. To extent whereby historians are influenced by conception of modernity, they seem to be susceptible in viewing the past mans homunculus of modern man, instead, viewing him in his own terms. The current scholars are seen to be sophisticated and aware of the temptations, on the other hand, the historians succumbed to it frequently in 19th century. A renaissance man, therefore, suffered more on the violence under the analysis, it was contorted into the forerunner of the 19th century atheism, liberalism, Protestantism or the numerous nationalisms.

Burckhardt’s argues that, Renaissance man’s characteristics mostly reflected values of the time more than the ones on the Renaissance. According to Kris teller and Garin argument, their work led to balanced assessments of the Renaissance thought, nonetheless; even their models can also be problematic if they are rigidly interpreted. Instead to be imposing should in better humanistic spirit, turn ad Fontes and then see what the categories as the sources suggest. As long as we cannot find modern or the proto-modern, man Petrarch, Montaigne or Castiglione, thinkers revealed modernity notion which has some of the similarities as ours, although the content in their thought is hardly anticipated on what was to follow in later centuries. The view of their novel on the modern entailed reassessment of relation to the other men, present and past, and this way they might be credited with designing modern sense of self, this is not that their philosophical personalities and opinions were by all means modern, nevertheless, their mode of introspection was identifiable with ours.

The Renaissance men also considered here as humanistic bent a choice might be nourished and biased that humanist side of the intellectual ultimately debate with the victorious side, inexorably leading to design of the modern thought and downfall of the Aristotelian. According to Kris teller, the exploded of the myth through demonstrations then continued with the success of Aristotelianism in the later centuries, the popularity of the Platonism in middle ages, also, lack of set of doctrines that are identifiable and adopted by humanists, defined as a group by their common profession. Moreover, the Neo-Platonism thoughts those so enthralled humanists were formulated by the Marsilio Ficino and then trained Aristotelian, and also his pupil Pico Della Mirandola eventually became one of the Dominican monk. Religious fervor also played a crucial role in the lives of Petrarch and Montaigne. When rejecting any notion about humanists as intrinsically anti-Catholics or the anti-Aristotelian, Kris teller retained opinion for being placed as an emphasis on the man, on his dignity and the privileged place in the whole universe e.g. Petrarch, and then focused on concrete uniqueness of the feelings, opinions and experiences e.g. Montaigne. These aspects are the only ones that Burckhardt’s egocentrism or individualism that Kris teller believed that he could preserve, and even these may have been too much.

To what extent was the Renaissance a series of original innovations

The Renaissance in Italy was considered to be a historian and began on the modern age. As we can see, the name itself means rebirth with an accurate description of the innovation period in both sciences and arts (Rothbard, 2000). The literary arts also gained much of attention, as the thinkers of Renaissance turned the lost texts of the ancient world for the new understanding. The renewed interest in literature, history, and arts was a new way of thinking being born, the one that centered on the world of mankind as most of the concerned for hereafter that was a sole concern of the medieval man. This type of thinking was known as the humanism, tracing back “man as the measure of all things”, the concept of Greek. With movable type of invention during Renaissance, new ideas with ancient scholarship spreading faster than it has ever before.

The obvious changes during Renaissance times were seen in sculptures and paintings. Even though, they always continue with the medieval tradition of involving the religious subjects, the stories from the bible were combined through the interest with the classical ideals of the human figure and the increase in the interest of depicting nature. The secular works were also hugely popular and often inspired by the Greek and the Roman Mythology ( Rodriguez, 1997). Artists started the experiment in the first time with oil based paints, mixing the powdered pigments with the linseed oil that gradually abandoned medieval techniques of the egg tempera. The eggs were dried slowly and remained as workable for some months. The technique called fresco was employed on the plaster walls to perfection with the artists e.g. Michelangelo. The Sculpture then began to conceive in round instead of the relief decorations on the cathedrals. Light and perspective were introduced into the art of perfecting the three dimensional reality. The artists during Renaissance made a dramatic impact on their concept of space, and then form that changed the way we look at the world for all the time.

Keeping this question in mind, how did the ideas and innovations of the Renaissance, whether or old or new, prepare the way for the Protestant and Catholic Reformations?

In the course of 15th century, the proceeding of the millennium was referred to as Middle Ages. Even though much of the medieval survived in their minds, people felt that they are living in a modern age. There was the urge to debate and also seek a new explanation that spreads from classical learning and end up into the religious studies. However, it inevitability leading to religious beliefs that were accepted, and the reformation was bred Renaissance. Further, Reformation and Renaissance were gathering Europe strength, beyond; the world was yielding the secrets to the European explorers, missionaries and traders. From those days the ancient Greeks known by some men in the theory that the world was globe and round.


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