What will be the politics of this movement? Body Answering these questions involves the society in turmoil, confusion, and political struggle. The society has an opportunity to move ahead with positive reproductive rights agenda. Doing so requires that it build the kind of movement it was not able to established in the past -- one that is broad-based in its membership, its leadership, and its politics; a movement that goes beyond reaffirmation of Roe to demand access not just to abortion, but to the full range of reproductive rights; a movement that is based on a class- and race-conscious feminism. There have been many activists in this movement for almost 15 years, and while they are all critical of much of the past, there is still hope about our future. For as long as the society will be able to broaden the base of the movement and widen the agenda, issues surrounding abortion will shed its own light. The society must likewise be convinced that in order to do so there is a need to change the strategies and the goals it has been doing. At the November 1989 "Mobilization for Women's Lives" in Washington D.C., amidst a sea of pro-choice banners and speeches, there has only been one physical testament to a broader agenda -- a T-shirt which read: "Abortion is not the only issue" and listed demands for access to safe, legal abortion, effective birth control, sex education and AIDS treatment, full economic rights for all women, an end to sterilization abuse, and reproductive freedom for lesbians, gays, and bisexuals. Even that list is incomplete because needs such as child care, freedom from violence, good jobs, safe workplaces, and many more belong on that shirt that has been produced (Luker, 1984). The demands should be nothing short of everything the society need for every woman's freedom. Transforming the abortion rights movement from a relatively narrow one focused on defending the legal right to abortion to a movement for reproductive freedom, from a movement whose membership and leadership is predominantly white to an inclusive movement with a broad and diverse grassroots base, these are key political tasks facing reproductive rights activists. And these are the issues that motivated pro-choice. For too long, white mainstream women's groups have under-valued the participation of women of color in the reproductive rights movement, and, with the exception of abortion, have ignored the issues of primary concern to women of color. To paraphrase Brenda Joyner, long-time activist and co-director of the Tallahassee Feminist Women's Health Center this narrow vision of choice has prevented them from seeing that work with pregnant teenagers, and prenatal care advocacy; activism to reduce the high infant and maternal death rate for Black women; organizing to end hazardous workplaces, racism, sterilization abuse, and violence; AIDS activism, and the expansion of gay and lesbian rights and child care access are all part of the reproductive rights struggle.
Perhaps the question is not really where women of color in the abortion rights and reproductive rights movement are. Rather, where is the primarily white middle-class movement in our struggles for freedom? Where was a white middle-class movement when the Hyde Amendment took away Medicaid funding of abortions for poor women? Faced with an unwanted pregnancy, women do what they must, constrained only by the circumstances of their lives. Themes on this issue include experiences of abortion both illegal and legal; the value of women's lives; women taking control through collective action; and the place of women in the abortion debate. The poems by Sharon Cox and Joan Fishbein invoke the fear, the shame, and the inequities which defined illegal abortion. ByllyeAvery describes her experiences helping women gain access to abortion both before and after legalization. Her article goes on to place abortion in the context of the survival needs of Black women and the empowerment strategy of the National Black Women's Health Project. Beverly Smith recalls the days of illegal abortion and the difficulties Black women have in choosing to take care of themselves. She also discusses the participation of Black women in the abortion rights struggle. Margaret Cerullo's article and the poem by Susan Tracy are first-person accounts of illegal abortion. Both remind us that the abortion struggle is over the value placed on women's lives. Just Call Jane is the story of an illegal, feminist abortion service, a story of women taking control of abortion and taking care of other women (Keown, 1988). This is the first time a former "Jane" has herself written about the experience. Another form of women's control of their reproductive capacity- self-help -- is the topic of Laura Punnett's essay. She discusses the politics of menstrual extraction and the importance of using it to enable women to control their own fertility as opposed to its being used as an instrument of population control. Lynn Chancer focuses on the way in which the current abortion debate is framed. She is particularly concerned about the defensiveness of pro-choice supporters. Sarah Buttenweiser and Reva Levine write about the toll anti- abortion politics takes on women who have had abortions. Ellen Willis is critical of the effort to disengage abortion from feminism and sexual politics. She demands those women’s lives and needs be seen as the central issue in the abortion debate. Loretta Ross focuses on the need for the Black community to break its silence on the abortion issue and to provide support for Black women who are making this choice. She also argues that alliances are needed between the civil rights, abortion rights, and feminist movements. Attacks on abortion access by the anti- abortion movement are part of an overall strategy which seeks, in the short run, to make abortion more and more difficult for increasing numbers of women and, in the long run, aims to criminalize abortion -- for any woman, for any reason. The articles in this section discuss these attacks and ways in which our movement has responded. The most vulnerable women in our society -- poor women, of whom a disproportionate number are women of color, and young women -- have borne the brunt of the legislative attacks on access. The Emergency Memorandum and the articles by Sabrae Jenkins and Angela Bonavoglia address the impact that the erosions in access have had on these women. Connie Chan talks about the interrelation of classism, sexism, and language barriers all resulting in lack of access to reproductive counseling, education, and abortion within Asian-American communities. The attacks on abortion clinics are very direct challenges to women's access to abortion. The articles by Ann Baker, D?zon Dixon, and Cynthia Peters discuss Operation Rescue and report on pro-choice responses. Judy Norsigian's article updates us on RU-486 as an alternative method of abortion. Brenda Joyner's article emphasizes the importance of fighting back against all threats to abortion access. Cox's poem The Female War Saga reflects the pain and anger of the battle and the determination to resist. Safe, legal, and funded abortion is crucial for reproductive choice. So too are many other rights which the society has never had. The struggle for reproductive rights takes different forms in different communities. The pursuit of a full reproductive freedom agenda is necessary if we are to build a movement of and for all women. Women's survival needs are being threatened in so many ways and women are mobilizing in their communities both to resist the attacks and to demand more. The reproductive rights movement must insure that abortion rights will not be won at the expense of the rights of any group of women (Glendon, 1987). The issue of disability rights to the struggle for abortion rights can be linked to be as important as the life of a fetus. This is because of the fact that when women who are suffering from a disability and got pregnant will have bigger problems when they will deliver their child. Their health will be placed in great detriment because of their sickness and disability. Hence, in this case, abortion is being used as the means to get rid of the detriment. Pro-choice members are especially concerned to block efforts by the anti- abortion movement to exploit the disability issue in the service of oppressing women. Hortensia Amaro looks at the impact of AIDS on women of color and new threats to reproductive choice "Fetal rights" have become central in challenging abortion rights and as justifications for other efforts to control women's behavior. The articles by Janean Daniels and Jacqueline Berrien focus on fetal abuse/neglect charges, forced Caesareans, and the impetus to punish pregnant women. They point out that women of color and poor women are overwhelmingly the targets. Cynthia Daniels argues that "fetal protection" policies harm workingwomen and focus attention away from remedying hazardous workplaces. Transforming the abortion rights movement involves linking issues and movements. Stephanie Poggi and Shelley Mains talk about links between the abortion rights and lesbian/gay liberation movements. The vision statements of the Black Women's Health Project, the Women of Color Partnership Program of the Religious Coalition for Abortion Rights, the statement by Asian-American women to the "In Defense of Roe" conference, and the article by Kathryn Kolbert all articulate a broad reproductive rights agenda. The final selection is Byllye Avery's speech to the historic "In Defense of Roe" conference. It is a call for coalition- building in the reproductive rights movement based on respect for the reproductive choices of all women. Since 1973, when abortion was legalized through Roe v. Wade, the anti- abortion movement has worked to limit the ability of women to "choose" abortion. These efforts became part of a larger backlash which opposed gains made in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the women's liberation movement. Legalized abortion was fought for and won by that movement as part of a new and comprehensive vision of women's potential. In the 1970s and 1980s, abortion came to symbolize that vision as the New Right, driven by anti-feminism, made opposition to abortion the centerpiece of its own social and political program (Garrow, 1994).