Free «ARF and CKD» Essay Sample


Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure is a situation whereby there is a sudden or rapid loss of the function of the kidney. Its causes are numerous. They include a fall in the blood volume, exposure to toxic substances that is the toxins and even having the bladder filled with urine for a long time. These are just but some of its causes, otherwise they are many other causes. This failure can be diagnosed based on previous medical examination results that can include reduced amount of urine being processed by the kidney and presence of urea in the urine.

Depending on how severe this disease is, it has a number of complications that can arise and this includes affecting the other body organs, imbalance of the body fluid, and increase in the level of potassium as well as increase in the level of acids discharged from the body. However, this disease can be managed through replacement of the renal dialysis or use of drugs that are proofed to be in a position to correct the disorder (Claudio, Renaldo and John 2007, 69).

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease on the other hand refers to a gentle and gradual loss of the renal functions over time. One can be in a position to know that he is suffering from this disease when he feels a general body weakness. He can also have a loss of appetite. This can be diagnosed by screening a person who has from time to time, through medical examinations, have been found to be exposed to kidney problems. These include the persons suffering from diabetes and those with high blood pressure. These persons are said to be prone to this disease. It is diagnosed through laboratory examination of the blood to determine the level of creatinine.

If the creatinine level is high, it shows a decrease at the rate at which the glomerulas does its filtration. After some time, this leads to fall in the kidneys ability to get reed of waste products. However, the creatinine level most of the time is normal at the initial stage of this disease. In order to be able to diagnose this, if a person is being suspected to be suffering from this disease, an analysis of the urine can be done to see if there are red blood cells and proteins in the urine. This disease goes through five stages. For a long time now, there has been no specific treatment for it (Collage 2008, 2).

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Analysing the role of main macro structure engaged in renal system

The renal system is made up of the, kidney, ureters, urethra and the bladder. The kidney are used in the formation of urine, control of the body's blood pressure level and also in the production of red blood cells. Ureters are responsible for the transportation of the formed urine to the bladder where storage takes place. This urine is then removed from the body through the urethra.

 Amongst these structures, the kidney is the largest and plays the greatest role in the body. Some of these important roles are, regulating the water level in the body. Human beings are said to produce and realise 1.5 litters of urine in a day. However, when one takes many fluids, he or she is likely to realise more urine. On the other hand, when it is hot one can realise water in form of sweat and thus likely to realise less water in form of urine. The kidney also releases two hormones rennin, which regulates the pressure of the blood and the other hormone, is the erythropient, which is used in the production of the red blood cells. The kidney being the largest has two regions, cortex and medulla. The cortex has the nephron has the glomerulas which assist in the filtration of the blood in order to realise the urine. The kidney is has renal veins which drains what is not required in the kidney. The renal artery also supplies it. The bladder acts as urine store.

Role of nephron

Osmoregulation is the control an organism's level of fluids, which includes water. This is done by the nephron where ultra filtration occurs to form urine. The urine formed is realised from the body via urethra. The other useful substances are reabsorbed back to the necessary destinations.

Differentiating between the main causes of renal failure and its effects

There are three categories of causes of acute renal failure. These are, perennial causes, which hinders with the usual flow of blood to the kidney by slowing it down. Intrinsic causes are those that occur because of the glomeruli being damaged. Postrenal causes are those that result of blockage of the urinary tract. The causes of chronic kidney disease on the other hand are diabetes, high blood pressure and hardening of the glomerulus. The causes of chronic kidney failure take place over a long time while those of acute kidney failure occur suddenly within a short period.

On the effects, acute renal failure can result to complications that can be treated using sodium bicarbonate. Depending on what led to it, a person who has suffered from this disease might not be in a position to get the full function of the renal. This can in turn led to a patient just opting for a kidney transplant. For chronic kidney disease, it leads to death in the long run. Even if kidney transplant is done to the patient, this is just to prolong his or her life but later he or she will die (Ronco 2006, 4).

Application of diffusion in renal dialysis treatment

Renal dialysis works on diffusion. Diffusion refers to the flow of substance dissolved in water from a region of high concentration to the region of low concentration. The two types of renal dialysis work in different ways. For haemodialysis water and the wastes are removed by having blood circulated outside ones body via a filter. This filter removes the water and wastes. Once these wastes have been removed, they flow in opposite directions with the blood. In peritoneal dialysis, what is removed from the blood through peritoneal membrane moves into a certain solution whose composition is similar to that of the blood (Ronco 2006, 57).


Both failures are disorders of the kidney. Acute renal failure occurs prior to chronic. This is to say that chronic kidney failure is caused after repeated attacks by acute kidney failure. To be in a position to reduce the chances of death due to chronic kidney disease, individuals should take the appropriate precautions such as urinating when the bladder is full to avoid exposure to chronic stages.


Since acute renal disease can be treated, as soon as the person involved starts experiencing the signs and symptoms, he or she should go for diagnosis immediately. For chronic kidney disease, because there has been no specific treatment for it, kidney dialysis should be done to the affected person in order to prolong his or her life. However, the cost of dialysis must reduce to cater for more patients. To everyone else, in situations that you, as an individual, can be able to manage, try as such as possible to do so in order to avoid unnecessary disorders.


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