According to Hersen (1998) diabetic children usually have the type 1 diabetes, also referred to as juvenile diabetes. The other type of diabetes is known as type 2 and is common among older people. In this case Hannah is only ten years and therefore her type of diabetes is the type 1.Therefore, we are going to look at what diabetes mellitus in juveniles entails like in the case of Hannah, the symptoms, cause, and the appropriate treatment for the condition plus the teachings that are likely to help Hannah in her recovery process and all the potential barriers that may be experienced in the therapy processes.
Diabetes mellitus is a condition whereby the body has difficulty regulating the blood sugar levels. There are two types of diabetes namely, type 1diabetes which is also referred to as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In this case study we are going to look at diabetes type 1which is common in juveniles like Hannah in the case study. This condition present when the immune system of the body attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas. These cells are usually responsible for the production of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that aids the body to transfer the glucose that is contained in the food to the body cells all over the body for provision of energy. Therefore, in a case where the beta cells are damaged, insulin is not produced making the glucose remain in the blood system where if no precaution is taken, it causes a very serious damage to the organ systems of the body. This is the precise condition that Hannah is diagnosed with at the tender age of 10 years in the case study (James, 1987).
The following are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 1and may occur unexpectedly,
- Recurrent urination
- Mouth breadth which is fruity or wine-like
- A higher feeling of thirst than before
- A feeling of being drowsy
- A high rate of weight loss
- A vision that is unclear or blurred
- A high rate of hunger
- Problems in breathing
- Lack of feeling or itchiness in the hands or feet
- A feeling of being drowsy
A child who starts to experience the some of the above listed symptoms must be taken to a medical physician within the shortest time possible where laboratory test rather than the physical observation must be carried out to completely diagnose the problem. The similar symptoms may be as a result of another condition and therefore the complete history of the patient and physical examination are very ital information to the doctor. Diagnosis of diabetes is via the urine tests, blood tests, fasting blood test, glucose- tolerance tests and the glycol hemoglobin test (Hersen, 1998). These were the same tests that were used to recognize the condition of diabetes on Hannah.
Juvenile diabetes is caused by the lack of enough insulin in the body due to the following possible reasons:
- the body being infected with a specific type of a virus or a bacteria
- Intake of chemicals in the food which intoxicate the body.
- A young infant who has been exposed to the cow's milk too much can get the diabetes signs
- Obesity in young people
- Certain inappropriate medications
- Any illness likely to interfere with the pancreas role of insulin production
- Environmental factors
However, it is important to note that some of the said theory merely contributes to the cause of diabetes. They include the consumption of sweets and stress. The first clear cause of juvenile diabetes is genetics. In this case of juvenile diabetes, the pancreas secrets very little or no insulin due to the fact that the beta cells are usually dead in a condition that is referred to as autoimmune reaction.
Karp in (1977) says suggests that juveniles like Hannah must receive treatment in order to avoid complications of diabetes that are likely to be of long term, these treatments are through the following ways.
- By taking in doses of insulin in order to stay alive and healthy via by the patient receiving multiple injections or via insulin pumps.
- A healthy diet should be provided to the diet as precedence for diabetes treatment since it raises the blood sugar.
- Plenty of exercises and physical activity are also essential as apart of treatment due to the fact that the blood sugar of more active a person is lower than an idle person. These activities cause the blood sugar to be transported to the body cells where it is used for energy and hence lowered in the body. Aerobic exercise suitable or diabetic persons include; walking, using the trend mill or the biking system and jogging. However, it's vital to note that involve he whole body system are effective.
- Diabetes treatment using the suitable medicines and noting to keenly follow the doctors program and prescriptions. These medications's role is in lowering the blood level. In addition, some of the drugs may increase the blood sugar levels such as the corticosteroids which are used to control the blood pressure of the body. Therefore if a diabetic person wants to take blood pressure regulations medications it's vital to look at the effect that they might have on the blood sugars rate.
- Pancreas transplantation has been present ever since the kidney transplant was started in the early 1960's. Kidney failure constitutes to the complications and failure of the pancreas. Therefore, it's best to receive a new pancreas once your kidney is transplanted. Unluckily, the pancreas transplantation does not always work as there is the possibility of the body rejecting the new organs later after the transplant. However since in this case it is a 10 year old, the transplant can be effective since for individuals below the age of 45 ears have the chance of surviving the kidney and the pancreas transplant.
- Alcohol can sometimes on some individuals be use regulate the sugar levels as it is a part of carbohydrate.
- Islet cell transplantation which are numerous in the pancreas and are, they host the beta calls that are responsible for the production of insulin, medical professionals say that replacing these calls offers a less persistent and non-risky alternative rather than the risky pancreas transplantation to the individuals with the juvenile diabetes. They are infused to the liver and not to the pancreas because in the liver the portal vein is accessible in the liver. While in the liver the cells grow, multiply and produce insulin just like the pancreas.
Having looked at the juvenile diabetes, now we can be able to help Hannah in her recovery via the therapy processes. Having been an active member in sports it is evident that the cause of her diabetes is not due to lack of plenty exercise but either due to any of all the earlier mentioned causes of juvenile diabetes. Hannah's case is a clear explanation that one cause is enough for a juvenile to be diagnosed with the type 1diabetes.her mother need to be very keen on the food that she feeds her; Hannah is still young and may be naive not to understand the important of healthy eating in her state. The other role and support of her mother is ensuring that the medical instructions in her therapy activities are followed to the dot. While still at the tender age, Hannah needs to be aware of her situation, by so doing, even in the absence of her mother she will be able to know what to avoid in order complications. The barriers that are likely to be experienced by Hannah due to her tender age include rejection of some therapies like the insulin injections due to the painful nature of injections and medications, eating unhealthy food that is prohibited. Once Hannah is at school her mother will have troubles in monitoring the progress of her state (Hersen, 1998).