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Type 1 diabetes is a persistent condition, where the pancreas does not produce insulin or produces little insulin. Insulin is vital for energy production, since it allows glucose to enter cells and then to be converted to energy. Type 1 diabetes is also known as insulin-diabetes. Lack of insulin production results to increased amounts of glucose found in blood and urine. This is harmful to the body, since it means that there is no production of energy in the body. It also means that glucose does not get into the cells; hence, it is not converted into energy (David, 2011).
Causes of Type 1 Diabetes
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Diabetes is a disease that can lead to death. It is, thus, a devastating experience that anyone would not want to go through. It affects one’s daily life and type of food and drinks one takes. Proper medication is necessary to help in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is caused by a number of things. The main causes are genetics, environment, viruses, diet, drugs, chemicals, and pathophysiology. Diabetes mellitus is a polygenic disease; this means that there are genes that contribute to its inception. All these depend on its locus, which can be either prevailing or recessive. Certain variations of genes amplify the danger for reduced histocompatibility, which is a characteristic for diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. A child is at a risk of 10% of inheriting type 1 diabetes from a father, who has it, or a sibling. The child is also at a risk of 4% of acquiring the disease, if the mother has it, and if the mother was twenty five years of age or below, when she gave birth to the child. The child may also acquire the disease, if the mother was over 25 years of age, when giving birth to the child. This is, however, a risk of just one per cent (Urden et al., 2010).
The environment one lives in can also influence the onset of type 1 diabetes. This can be seen in Caucasians, who are living in the different parts of the world. People, who migrate, are also at a risk of acquiring the disease. There have been numerous discussions that have proposed that diabetes mellitus is always caused by some viruses. Cells that have been infected by these viruses and the beta cells are usually attacked by the immune system. The pancreatic beta cells found in the islets of Langerhans are usually destroyed. This reduces the production of endogenous insulin. One’s diet also triggers the onset of type 1 diabetes. In the republic of Czech, for example, the children, who have been breastfed for the short periods, and whose attendance at day care was short, are at a risk of acquiring type 1 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2013).
Pancreatic cells are also destroyed by certain chemicals and drugs. An example of these chemicals is pyrinuron, which is a rodenticide. This chemical, when inhaled or ingested either accidentally or intentionally, destroys pancreatic beta cells, which eventually leads to diabetes mellitus. When the beta cells are destroyed, the production of insulin decreases. There are other pancreatic problems that can lead to type 1 diabetes. They include pancreatitis and trauma. Pathophysiology in diabetes mellitus or diabetes type 1 is in essence obliteration of beta cells found in the pancreas. This is despite the presence of any risk factors or contributing entities (David, 2011).
Teaching Plan for Client with DiabetesType1
Ellen has recently been found to be having diabetes type 1 or diabetes mellitus. A teaching plan for her needs to be developed in order to help her in managing the disease. The teaching plan should include the recommended treatments, both short term and long term complications. The plan should also have the survival skills for the family. Detailed information on the patient’s goals, nutritional needs, medication needs, routine follow up, and monitoring shall also be included in the teaching plan. Ellen’s treatment involves a therapy for insulin. This is done through either injecting insulin into her blood stream or by pumping insulin into her system. Ellen’s treatment will be based on injection of insulin into her system instead of pumping it into her system. She will be treated using subcutaneous insulin, which will help to bring her insulin level to a normal range. She will also be injected with lantus 12 units once in a day. This dosage of lantus will help in the treatment of diabetes ketoacidosis. Also in her treatment, she will receive injections of humalog 0.5 units per 15GM of carbohydrates at each meal. Humalog is used alongside subcutaneous insulin and helps in lowering levels of glucose found in the blood. Other treatments include managing her diet. This includes tracking the amount of carbohydrates she takes and also controlling the blood glucose levels. This is done through glucose meters. The main aim of this treatment is to try to lower the blood sugar or glucose in order to reach the normal level, which is usually 80-140 mg/dl. This, in turn, helps in preventing the occurrence of the long-term complications that might affect the nervous system (American Diabetes Association, 2013).
Short-term complications will include physiological effects. Depression is quite common among people suffering from diabetes. Research also indicates that women with diabetes type 1 are more likely to get depressed than men suffering from the same illness. Another short term complication is eating disorders. Ellen’s eating habits will have to change. Her appetite will also reduce, which means that she will be eating less food. This will eventually lead to weight loss. It is a short-term complication because after sometime she will get used to it. Long-term complications include infection to the nervous system and cardiovascular diseases (ProQuest, 2013).
Cardiovascular disease can lead to chest pains, heart attacks, stroke, and even death. Ellen will, however, be notified that long-term complications can be avoided by keeping her blood sugar level to normal. This means that she will have to get insulin injections every day, check on what she eats, and have medical checkups on weekly basis. Ellen’s goal will be to maintain her blood sugar level. This is the main goal. Other goals will be to try to avoid short-term complications through counseling and medical checkups. She will take daily injections of insulin. She will also have to consider her diet and what she drinks. She will have to avoid food and drinks that have large amounts of sugar. She will also have to avoid smoking. She will have medical checkups at least twice per week; that is on the first day of the week and on the last day of the week. Ellen will have to control her cholesterol by doing some exercises. She can jog in the mornings or take a walk daily (ProQuest, 2013).
Diabetes type 1 also known as insulin diabetes is most common in children and young adults. It is very dangerous and can even lead to death. There is no specific cure for diabetes. All one needs to do is to try to keep the blood sugar level in the body at a normal range. Proper dieting and medication helps in controlling diabetes type 1 or diabetes mellitus. Doctors normally treat type 1 diabetes by administering insulin into the body. This is done through injections; although, insulin can also be pumped into the body or inhaled. There have been cases of pancreatic transplants to help in curing the disease.