Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a form of an emotional disease that is usually classified as an acute anxiety disorder that develops as a result of a highly unsafe, life threatening or frightening experience. In most cases, the sufferer tends to fear other people, places, or some particular life experiences. They are usually said to be highly sensitive to normal everyday life activities before committing themselves. The nature of the illness is different from the other forms of anxieties because it is long lasting, has acute frustration to the victims and in some occasions, it can cause the victims to live different life from others, such as neglecting studies, marrying and even sleeping (Thomas, 2008).
This study covers the extent, nature of the illness, such as the numbers of people affected, its diagnosis, treatment difference between the PTSD and other disorders with the diagnosis category, on the cultural bound syndrome assessment and the relationship between the disease diagnosis and culture. The essay will include all the appropriate medical views on the treatment process of the disease before analyzing their diversity. Later, the essay will provide conclusion remarks on the illness to the various stakeholders found to fight the diseased in children, adolescents and adults (Courtois & Ford, 2009).
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Nature, Extent, Demographic Statistics and other Factors of Interest in PTSD
The post traumatic stress disorder has been characterized by acute stress or anxiety of an individual. In most cases, the victims of the disease are found to fear other people, places and even events. The illness can result from children or adults exposed to war, robbery, rape fight and other unusual life experiences that could have affected their emotional and social functioning. The events are found to interfere with the psychological functioning of the individual brains, hence start avoiding the normal life activities.
Global demographic statistics on the illness reveal that currently, about 7-8 percent of people in the United States are likely to suffer from the post traumatic illness. The level of diseased people is expected to increase in the country due to the high rape cases, ranging from 10 to 30%. Moreover, the soldiers returning from war from other states, such as Iraq are likely to develop the disease (Cash, 2006). However, the statistics reveal that, traumatic cases are widespread among the native Africans, African Americans, Hispanics, and other Native Americans, compared to the pure Americans due to the continued series or tribal and interreligious wars. Moreover, various social problems, such as poverty and other factors are found to provoke children develop the illness. The black Americans suffer from the illness due to the racial challenges, faced in the American states. In addition to that, the statically collected data in 2011 revealed that in United States alone, over 5 millions of Americans suffer from the illness, but more than half of the figure are women.
Traumatic events, such as the terrorist incidence in 2001 were found to have contributed greatly to the illness. On the teens and children, the research work carried out by American Psychological Association revealed that, more than 40% of them have experienced certain traumatic events, such as war, rape, violence or other related vices. For the girls, the post traumatic stress is as high as 15%, while in the boys it is around 6%. However, for both groups of teens, 3-6% in the high schools were reported to suffer from the illness. In the United States, around 30-60% of the young children were born at a time of disasters or even experienced such disasters as floods, earthquakes and wars. Specifically, all those children who experienced their parents killed or raped were found to suffer from the illness. They have the fear to mention or even recall the ordeal. Lastly, a third of the youths engaging in community violence such as shooting, assault and stabbing suffered from PTSD.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder’s Diagnosis
In most cases, post traumatic stress disorders are diagnosed, based on various sign and symptoms, exhibited by the victims. Sometimes, the doctors use psychological evaluations and tests, but this is rare. The doctor or even the mental health professional, such as a psychologist, will in most cases request the patient to describe what they are experiencing. In other cases, they will even ask how long the victim has experienced the ordeal and what are some of the challenges faced in life (Brewin, 2003). Other psychologists will provide individuals with a test of which traumatic evident resulted to the mental problem. Currently, the illness is tested using the Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The manual system of testing the disease was developed in 1994 by the American Psychiatric Association, so as to help them in identifying various complications of the disease among children.
It is currently used by the insurance agencies to determine the amount of medical reimbursement. The system reveals that, different individuals with different stress experiences suffer different levels of PSTD. Those who experienced serious injuries or even death threats are highly depressed, followed by those who experience intense fear or sense of hopelessness, while those suffering from minor stress such as upcoming dreams, flashbacks, physical reactions and distressing images, while asleep, suffer the least.
Explaining how PTSD is Treated
Post traumatic disorder can be a very debilitating disorder or illness if not treated properly. For those at extreme cases of consuming drugs or mentally affected by the injuries or death ordeals, it is advocated to have them see the medical practitioners for medical checkup and treatment. However, for the case of minor disorders, such as loss of sleep, upcoming dreams and even anger, the psychologists can offer them guidance and counseling services. In addition to that, the medical practitioners can also offer other medical services, such as physiotherapies to the injured and stressed individuals. It has also been suggested that, proper meals, continuous body exercises and even playing games can help a stressed person to keep the mind busy and finally cure the PTSD.
Lastly, the traumatic events’ victims should accept the fact that, they are post traumatic stressed and that living a positive life is the only cure. As an ill person, it is vital to tell your friend and relative about the post traumatic stress disorders, so that they can share some advice with you. Moreover, this will help them to understand you well and thus know how to behave. Lastly, the victim should not isolate himself or be abandoned. They should always see the doctors for check ups and medical advices (Roberts, 2011).
Difference between Diagnosis of PTSD and that of other Disorders
Other forms of disorders that individuals may face include depression and normal anxiety. These are much different from the post traumatic stress disorder which is characterized by heavy psychological disorders, such as heavy nightmares. In most cases, the minor disorders are caused by frightening somebody, being beaten or warned among other minor acts. On the other hand, Post traumatic stress disorders result from serious acts, such as robberies, rape, and serious injuries among others. In the diagnosis process, the other disorders are identified through the use of examination tests, interrogating the victim and even observing the actions. However, for PTSD, we use the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. These are manual systems specifically developed by American Psychiatric Association, so as to easily diagnose the illness.
Comment on the PTSD Culturally Bound Syndromes and other Bases
We know from the history, that human beings faced a lot of challenges, such as war, rape, earthquakes and other tortuous activities; they used to face the post traumatic stress disorders, just like today, and the problem is culturally syndrome based. The psychologically affected parties were counseled by the council of elders and other religious leaders in the society.
Human beings had to cope with these catastrophic problems and the prevailing disorders. There is an interplay relationship existing between assessment and diagnosis, as both of them rely on the DSM-IV as the main manual system for identifying the PTSD problem and the number of causal events. In assessing the magnitude of the disorders, several scales and trauma screen questionnaires are used. This helps to produce information necessary for the diagnosis and treatment processes of the victim (Fredericks, 2010). Some of the scales include PSTD symptom scale. This scale has been found to be instrumental in assessing the symptoms level and thus help the doctors to know where to refer the victim.
Since 1980s, various progresses have been made in treatment of post traumatic stress disorders. The psychologists and medical practitioners have identified various characteristics of the illness, methods of treatment and diagnosis, as well as the various differences between the illness and other kings of disorders. Moreover, the researchers are capable of linking the cultural factors and diagnosis of the disease, hence helping the medical practitioners to understand the disease well. Various causes such as murder, rape drug abuse and other vices should be avoided in order the statistical figure given reduces.
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