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Free «Types of Cancer» Essay Sample

This paper seeks to introduce a reader to the types of cancers. The paper commences with an introduction, which outlines what is going to be discussed in the paper. The introduction also introduces the objectives of study such as the identification of the various types of cancers and ways that can be employed in treating the cancers. The literature review concerning the topic of discussion is explicated in detail basing on research from different texts and websites. The literature review outlines the design problem, which includes different types of cancers, how they result, and the ways that can be incorporated in treating the cancers. Several types of cancers are explicated in the literature review. For instance, prostate cancer occurs mainly among men and develops in the prostate. It occurs in the male reproductive system and leads to impotency in some instances. Research indicates that prostate may metastasize to other, different parts of the male body, hence causing other complications that could be deadly. It has the capacity of spreading to the bones and the lymph nodes among the male population, hence affecting their overall forms of operation. This is followed by the body whereby design solutions are discussed. The design solutions include ways that the cancers can be prevented or treated. For instance, chemotherapy is mentioned as one way of treating cancer. Chemotherapy is an effective method of treating cancer among individuals. It is effective because it ensures that all the cells associated with the disease are killed appropriately, hence ensuring that the body is safe. The essay closes with conclusions and recommendations relating to the research topic. An example of recommendation outlined concerns further research on effects of alcohol, after the treatment of cancer. Another recommendation concerns maintenance of healthy weight as a way of preventing cancer. The essay concludes by restating the main points discussed.

Cancer is a broad group of various diseases that affect the different parts of the human body. This disease is medically referred to as malignant neoplasm, and it usually involves unregulated cell growth in the different parts of the human body. This research paper aims at achieving several objectives by the end of the entire project. The several objectives of this paper will be used to reinforce and clearly bring out several issues associated with cancer, hence leading to an in depth understanding about the different types of cancer. The first objective of this project is to give a clear and vivid definition of the term cancer according to the field of medicine. The understanding of the definition of the term cancer will play a significant role in facilitating the understanding of the different timorous conditions that may be categorized under cancer. Research indicates that individuals need to be careful when categorizing tumors as cancer because not all tumors are cancerous. The second objective of this project is to identify the several key causes of cancer among human beings. Cancer is caused by different forces, which individuals need to understand carefully. The understanding of the causes of cancer will be helpful in guiding individuals towards their choice of lifestyles. This objective will be seeking to discuss causes such as obesity, tobacco use and radiation, lack of physical activity, certain infections, environmental pollutants, and the lack of physical activity.

The third objective of the project is to identify the different types of cancer that affect human beings. Research indicates that many types of cancer affect the different parts of the human body in the course of their activities. Some of the cancerous infections could be identified at their earlier stages while others reveal themselves at their latter stages. This paper will identify the different types of cancer such as leukemia, breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer, cervical cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, uterine cancer, thyroid cancer, and brain cancer. Research asserts that cancer has become a common phenomenon all over the globe and has led to excessive losses of lives among individuals. All these types of cancer have the potential to affect both adults and even children. The fourth objective of this project is to identify the significant symptoms associated with cancer among human beings. The different types of cancer are linked with various key symptoms that help researchers in the easier identification of the certain varieties of the cancerous conditions among individuals.

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The fifth objective of the project is to identity the current treatments that medical practitioners have advanced towards alleviating the condition among human beings. Research indicates that cancer is one of the critical illnesses among human beings and has contributed to enormous loss of lives, due to the lack of clearly specialized means of treatment of the condition among human beings. The several approaches that have been currently adopted by medical practitioners include surgery, the removal of tumors, radiation, and chemotherapy. These methods of treatment could also be combined in order to achieve the desired results. This paper will also evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment strategies that have been adopted by practitioners. Individuals ought to be taught about the entire subject of cancer, as this will facilitate the understanding and identification of the key cancerous conditions affecting human beings. The sixth and last objective of this project is to give recommendations relating to cancer and strategies that have been adopted in ensuring its effective treatment. The recommendations will recap the different types of cancer and methods that could be used for effective treatment of the disease among individuals.

Literature Review

Cancer comprises of a collection of many different diseases. According to DeVita, Lawrence and Rosenberg (2008), the diseases affect different parts of the human body; thus, cause many deaths among humans. Cancer is a deadly disease that must be controlled effectively in order to counter the effects associated with it. Research indicates that it involves a large amount of treatment costs due to the complicated methods that are used in alleviating it. The several types of cancer affecting individuals around the globe include breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, leukemia, brain cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical and thyroid cancer (Hart & Loeffler, 2011). An investigation revealed by researchers indicated that women are mostly affected by breast cancer, cervical cancer and colon cancer. These conditions have been spread immensely among women hence leading to many deaths among them. One of the key causes of cancer among women is excessive drinking and smoking, lack of exercise, exposure to chemicals and obesity. Hayat (2007) indicates that breast cancer is the most current cancer that invades women breasts. It has led to numerous deaths and suffering among most of them especially those who do not diagnose it at its earlier stages. The exposure to chemicals such as benzene has played a significant role in causing breast cancer among women. Excessive drinking of alcohol and excessive smoking also play a part in causing these several types of cancers among women. Cancer has made it hard for women to give birth and even take care of their children effectively in society.

The symptoms associated with the types of cancer among women include fatigue, pains, and even loss of appetite. This reduces their activity levels, hence making it hard for most women to take part in their normal activities, in society. National Cancer Institute (2009) affirms that some of the cancerous infections are not associated with any symptom, and they could lead to gradual deaths without being recognized. Obesity has also contributed to the development of these cancers among women hence complicating the entire situation of alleviation and treatment. All these cancers are also associated with the growth of unregulated tissues in the respective locations in which they occur. This is risky even when it comes to the entire part of trying to treat the disease (Palladino & Lobo, 2012). Colon cancer is principally identified as it involves diarrhea, constipation and the presence of blood in stool. These symptoms make it easily identifiable and the acquisition of significant measures to deal with it among women. Research indicates that education is critical in ensuring the identification of cancerous conditions and alleviation before they reach their worst stages. Campaigns are being conducted in order to teach women about breast cancer and the measures that they could develop in order to counter it effectively (Robinson, 2010).

According to Palladino and Lobo (2012), prostate cancer occurs mainly among men and develops in the prostate. It occurs in the male reproductive system and leads to impotency, in some instances. Research indicates that prostate may metastasize to other, different parts of the male body, hence causing other complications that could be deadly. It has the capacity of spreading to the bones and the lymph nodes among the male population, hence affecting their overall forms of operation (Robinson, 2010). Men above fifty years of age are the most susceptible to this variety of cancer and could be effectively treated in cases where measures are adopted as required. In its early stages, prostate cancer shows no symptoms as it develops quietly in the male population. At its late stages, it is associated with symptoms such as frequent urination, hematuria, dysuria, and difficult in maintaining a steady state of urine flow. Therefore, individuals are exposed to pains during their entire times as they attempt to urinate. Prostate cancer is extremely difficult for detect, at its earlier stages, because of the lack of clear symptoms. DeVita, Lawrence, and Rosenberg (2008) indicate that it spreads to other parts of the body, hence causing other symptoms that are deadly and could lead to the death of the affected individuals. It also causes difficulties relating to ejaculation and erection among men.

Hayat (2007) confirms that Kidney cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, brain cancer, and skin cancer are common to both men and women. Kidney cancer leads to the inflammation of the kidney among human beings. It could only be treated effectively in cases where only one of the kidneys is affected. In cases where both kidneys are affected, it is difficult to deal with the condition because it could lead to deaths among the affected individuals. It causes the kidneys to dysfunction and makes it difficult for them to contribute to the purification of blood in the body. Lung cancer affects lungs and makes it difficult for individuals to breathe properly (Hart & Loeffler, 2011). It could result from excessive smoking among individuals, hence inhibiting the smooth functioning of the lungs among individuals. Liver cancer also results from excessive smoking and drinking among individuals. It causes inflammation of the liver hence making it difficult for it to detoxify most of the chemicals that could be present in the body. Research indicates that it could be also caused by obesity among individuals and the lack of exercise. People must always ensure that they take part in the different exercises that would help in boosting the functioning of the liver. The skin is susceptible to skin cancer, which could cause frequent itching among individuals. Brain cancer leads to brain damage and sometimes-mental problems among individuals. This is because of the development of extra cells in the brains and the effect on the entire functioning of the brain. Brain cancer makes difficult for the brain to function appropriately according to the requirements and leads to ultimate deaths among individuals (Palladino & Lobo, 2012).

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Palladino and Lobo (2012) affirm, Leukemia is another deadly variety of cancer, which may affect human beings. The cancer affects blood cells hence making it difficult for them to perform their function effectively around the body. Research indicates that leukemia starts from the bone marrow and the soft tissues inside most of the bones. However, the bone marrow is the core place in which blood cells that perform different functions around the body are made. Bone marrow is responsible for making of platelets and red and white blood cells. Leukemia leads to the production of abnormal white blood cells, which are commonly referred to as leukemia cells, which play different functions as those played by white blood cells. More so, these cells grow at a faster rate than the normal cells and do not stop growing even when they are supposed to stop. The overcrowding of leukemia cells leads to the development of critical conditions such as anemia continued bleeding, and other infections. Leukemia could be categorized as acute or lymphocytic leukemia. Acute or chronic leukemia leads to the development of worse conditions faster and can be detected effectively at a faster rate. Lymphocytic leukemia affects the lymphocytes, and mylogenous leukemia affects blood cells, which are commonly referred to as myelocytes. Research indicates that there is no known cause of leukemia but practitioners associate it with smoking, genetics, exposure to large amounts of radiation, and chemicals such as benzene. The symptoms associated with leukemia include fever along with night sweats and headaches, loss of weight, enlargement of the spleen, associated infections, fatigue, and bone and joint pains. Leukemia is deadly, as it cannot be treated easily. It is mostly associated with generic acquisition among individuals (Palladino & Lobo, 2012).

Chemotherapy is one of the current methods used by practitioners, in order to alleviate and treat the different forms of cancer. Chemotherapy involves the treatment of cancer with the use of an antineoplastic drug or a combination of drugs into a standardized treatment regimen. With chemotherapy, cells that divide rapidly are killed and made inactive. This reduces the effect of cancerous infections on the bodies of different individuals. Chemotherapy harms other cells, which divide swiftly under usual circumstances. This means that it harms the cells, such as in the hair follicles, digestive tract, as well as the bone marrow (Robinson, 2010). This leads to the key side effects associated with chemotherapy, which include immunosuppression, myelosuppression, mucositisis, and alopecia. Chemotherapy is carried out with a curative intent or with the aim of making the life of the individuals longer. Research indicates that chemotherapy could further lead to fatigue among individuals, stress, and even continuous bleeding among individuals. Infertility could also result from this method of treatment due to the chemicals that are involved in the process of trying to cure or alleviate cancer among individuals (Palladino & Lobo, 2012).

Another significant method of treating cancer is radiation therapy, radiation oncology, or radiotherapy. Radiation therapy is abbreviated to XRT or DXT. Research indicates that radiation therapy is more effective in instances, where the cells causing cancer are concentrated at one point in the body because they are eliminated easily. It is mainly applied in cancerous tumor because of its ability to control the growth of cells. Radiation therapy could be commonly used with other significant methods such as surgery, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Radiation therapy could be applied commonly in cases like non-malignant conditionor treatment of acoustic neuromas, trigeminal neuralgia, thyroid eye diseases, pterygium, pigmented villonodular synovitis, or for prevention of conditions like growth of keloid scar. Radiation therapy performs its functions through killing the DNA of the affected, cancerous cells that damage the body. The damage of the DNA of cancerous cells is provoked by the two varieties of energy, which include photon and charged particles. The damage could be referred to as indirect or direct ionization of atoms that form the DNA of the cancerous cells. Radiation therapy is painless; hence, it causes minimal side effects among individuals. Research indicates that the key side effects that include fatigue and skin irritation.

Surgery could also be used in the treatment of cancer among individuals. Surgery helps in the removal of the cancerous cells. Surgery is commonly used in removing the pieces of tumor that are found in the body. The tumor affecting the different parts of the body is removed from the body wholly or partly, in order to ensure that the individual is healed, and the condition is eliminated. The variety of diagnostic surgeries that are used in the alleviation and treatment of cancer include Excisional Biopsy, Incisional Biopsy, Fine Needle Aspiration, Needle Core Biopsy, Endoscopy, and Laparoscopy. The surgeries that are carried out are always aimed at ensuring that the individual recovers from the condition. This means that surgery could be curative surgery, debulking surgery, prophylactic surgery, palliative surgery, and reconstructive surgery. All these forms of surgeries are aimed at achieving significant objectives among individuals suffering from the conditions hence achieving the set results. National Cancer Institute (2009) indicates that surgery leads to the weakening of the system and makes it hard for individuals to operate according to the normal condition that are set.

Cancer and its Types

National Cancer Institute (2009) indicates that preventive measures could play a significant role in the elimination of cancerous infections among individuals. One of the key solutions to the problem of cancer could be the adherence to proper diets among individuals in order to reduce the rate of obesity. Researchers indicate that obesity has been one of the key contributors to the spread of cancer in society. Therefore, the consumption of foodstuffs with adherence to a proper diet will help in the treatment of the disease by ensuring that it is effectively eliminated. Individuals should also avert practices such as excessive smoking or drinking that are among the key contributors towards the acquisition of cancers. This will help in solving cancerous problems largely and ensure that the entire population is safe and free from the killer disease. It will help reduce total cancer mutations. Research indicates that cancer cells mutate at an extremely fast rate as indicated below in the formula (Palladino & Lobo, 2012).

Total cancer Mutations = u x d        

Another significant design solution to the problem is the use of radiotherapy. Research indicates that radiotherapy could be used significantly in the treatment of cancer among individuals because of its painless applications. It would help in the solution of most of the cancerous problems without necessarily causing pains to individuals. Chemotherapy is effective because of its minimal side effects on the bodies of individuals (Hayat, 2007). Research indicates that radiotherapy could be used in different ways, hence ensuring that one recovers from cancer or there is adequate alleviation of the disease among individuals. Palladino and Lobo (2012) indicate that radiotherapy is also effective because the individual takes lesser time to heal compared to other methods that could be used in the alleviation of cancerous conditions among individuals.

Chemotherapy is also an effective method of treating cancer among individuals. It is effective because it ensures that all the cells associated with the disease are killed appropriately hence ensuring that the body is safe. Chemotherapy is more effective because it is delivered through the entire bloodstream hence ensuring that it controls the spread of cancer among individuals. It has ensured that the disease is killed entirely and has no potential of spreading to other parts of the body. On the other hand, chemotherapy is disadvantageous because it leads to side effects such as nausea, fatigue, and the effect of the chemicals on the body. Chemotherapy is also disadvantageous because of its effects on the other cells of the body such as follicle cells of the body. Therefore, practitioners are required to be extremely careful in the choice of the chemicals used in chemotherapy according to the stage of the disease. A wrong choice of the chemical will lead to poor treatment, which will ultimately result in the death of the individual.

Hart and Loeffler (2011) assert that surgery is also an effective method of healing individuals suffering from cancerous infections. Surgeries are always aimed at alleviating cancerous infections among individuals. Surgery is always aimed at ensuring that the cells causing cancer among individuals are effectively eliminating. It involves the physical removal of the cells causing cancer and ensuring that individuals are saved from the effects of the disease. Surgery also prevents the spread of other infections that are associated with cancer hence ensuring that it does not affect other parts of the body. Surgery should be carried out in a professional manner that will keenly locate the cancerous cells alone without necessarily affecting other cells. Research indicates that research could be risky but effective in cases where it is conducted accordingly. The weaknesses of surgery are that it leads to fatigue among individuals and could lead to the development of permanent wound among individuals. Surgery could also be cheaper compared to the other methods such as chemotherapy that involve the use of many chemicals (Robinson, 2010).

Conclusion and Recommendations

Various recommendations abound regarding the different types of cancer. It is essential that people realize various cancers exist, and their causes vary. This is vital information because it will help people realize that it is essential to go for a medical checkup regarding cancer from time to time. Thus, research asserts that it is essential for people to be aware regarding genetic testing.

The Table Below Provides Information Regarding Gene and the Cancer Types They Cause. Information retrieved from National Cancer Institute Website.

Gene

Cancer types

HNPCC, PMS2, MLH1, PMS1, MSH2

Colon, urinary tract, uterine, stomach and small bowel.

BRCA2, BRCA1

Pancreatic, breast, and ovarian

An essential note concerning genetic testing is that it is done either clinically or through a research. Clinical testing regarding cancer has some fees attached. The fees cater for medical and counseling fees. In addition, the fees cater for the test to be performed, that is, if one is needed. It is also vital for patients to realize that consultations and comprehensive risk assessment take place in face-to-face setups and not via telephone. Thus, it is advisable to people considering genetic testing to undergo genetic education and counseling and be aware of the implications regarding the same. This calls for people undergoing such tests to provide informed consent. It should also be noted that genetic testing facilitates early detection of individuals with certain forms of cancers. Early detection of the carriers of the mutations is subjected to preventive surgery and chemoprevention in an attempt to reduce their subsequent risk.

Another critical recommendation is that people should be aware concerning how cancers begin. For instance, research blames cancer on the changing of normal cells and growing uncontrollably, which results to a tumor. It is also essential that people familiarize themselves with the varieties of tumors present, which include malignant and benign. The difference between these two cancers abounds from the fact that malignant tumors can be spread to various parts of the body, because they are cancerous, while benign tumors are noncancerous.

It is also recommended that people become aware regarding the diagnosis that takes after every form of cancer. Various diagnoses abound for different types of cancer. Notably, doctors employ various tests in finding out whether the cancer has metastasized. The purpose of the various tests is to come up with the most preferred treatment for the variety of cancer suspected or found. Biopsy abounds as the main test for various cancers; however, imaging is mostly utilized for checking whether the cancer has metastasized or not. Thus, it is also essential that patients know the significant factors to a doctor when determining the right method of diagnostic rest to be employed. These include severity of symptoms, medical condition and age, previous test results, and the variety of cancer suspected.

Various recommendations also abound from the U.S preventive Services Task Force. Sexually active women are advised to undergo cervical cancer screening from time to time. This is essential because it will help women to have at least a cervix until their old age. People from the age of 50 to 75 are advised to be screened for colorectal cancer. This should be done via fecal occult blood, colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. USPSTF recommends that routine screening is not advisable for testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, and prostate cancer. Despite the  fact that routine mammography is discouraged, it is advisable that those above 50 years should go for screening after every two years.

Various recommendations also abound regarding nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention. It is recommended by the American cancer society that people limit their drinking to less than three drinks in a day. However, women are cautioned against consuming the same amount of alcohol as men because of their body size. Research asserts that women’s body takes more time to break down alcohol than the men’s body, which is the reason they are recommended to consume less as compared to men. Notably, children and teens should not consume alcohol at all. Alcohol consumption is also not advisable after cancer treatment because it can lead to the reoccurrence. This is linked to alcohol’s increase of estrogens in the body that causes breast cancer. Other situations that require a person to restraint from alcohol consumption includes after diagnosis and during its treatment. Alcohol consumption should be avoided during treatment of cancer because of the possible side effects that can result from the interaction between alcohol and medicine. Research also recommends that more research is done on the effects of alcohol consumption especially after treatment. This is because there is scanty information regarding the topic.

It is also recommended that women be conversant with their breast shape so that they can report any changes that take place. With regards to cervical cancer, it is recommended that women above 21 years should be tested using pap or HPV test. However, women above 30 years should go for tests after every three years, but those with removed cervix and uterus are not advised to go for tests.

However, it is considered paramount that people avoid tobacco and maintain a healthy weight. It is recommended that people eat healthy diets, which comprises of vegetables and fruits. In addition, skin protection is advisable as sun rays can result in skin cancer. People should also research on their family heath history because it helps in establishing the most prominent cancers, which may affect a person. Thus, family history is paramount in helping the spread or early detection and prevention of some forms of cancer.

In conclusion, cancer comprises of the broad group diseases that affect the different parts of the human body. This disease is medically referred to as malignant neoplasm, and it usually involves unregulated cell growth in the different parts of the human body. Understanding of definition of the cancer term plays a significant role in facilitating of treatment of the different timorous conditions, which may be categorized under cancer. Research indicates that individuals need to be careful when categorizing tumors as cancer because not all tumors are cancerous. Cancer is a deadly disease that must be controlled effectively in order to counter the effects associated with it. Research indicates that it involves a large amount of treatment costs due to the complicated methods that are used in alleviating it. The several varieties of cancer affecting individuals around the globe include breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, leukaemia, brain cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical and thyroid cancer. An investigation revealed by researchers indicated that women are mostly affected by breast cancer, cervical cancer and colon cancer. All these cancers are also associated with the growth of unregulated tissues in the respective locations in which they occur. This development is risky, even when it comes to the entire part of trying to treat the disease (National Cancer Institute, 2009). Colon cancer is principally identified as it involves diarrhoea, constipation and the presence of blood in stool. These symptoms make it easily identifiable and the acquisition of significant measures to deal with it among women. Research indicates that education plays a significant role in facilitating the identification of cancerous conditions and alleviation before they reach their worst stages. Chemotherapy is one of the current methods used by practitioners, in order to alleviate and treat the different types of cancer. Chemotherapy involves the treatment of cancer with the use of an antineoplastic drug or a combination of drugs into a standardized treatment regimen. With chemotherapy, cells that divide rapidly are killed and made inactive. This reduces the effect of cancerous infections on the bodies of different individuals. Chemotherapy harms other cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances. Research indicates that radiation therapy is more effective in instances, where the cells causing cancer are concentrated at one point in the body, because they are eliminated easily. It is mainly applied in cancerous tumor because of its ability to control the growth of cells. Radiation therapy could be commonly used with other significant methods such as surgery, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Research also asserts that surgery is an effective method of healing individuals suffering from cancerous infections. It involves the physical removal of the cells causing cancer and ensuring that individuals are saved from the effects of the disease. Surgery also prevents the spread of other infections that are associated with cancer, hence ensuring that it does not affect other parts of the body. The surgeries that are carried out are always aimed at ensuring that the individual recovers from the condition. This means that surgery could be curative surgery, debulking surgery, prophylactic surgery, palliative surgery, and reconstructive surgery. All these types of surgeries are aimed at achieving significant objectives among individuals suffering from the conditions hence achieving the set results.

   

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