The rise and increased eruption of Islamic movements had considerable impacts on the developments of the modern Middle East. First and foremost, the Islamic movements were fighting for democracy in Middle East countries. The Islamic movements erupted due to atrocious and prolonged suppression of Islamists. This forced the Islamic community to form rebel movements for counter attacks. The Islamic movements drew members from all walks of life, including the middle class members of the society.
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The use of violence created terror amongst communities and security forces of Middle East nations. This forced the security agencies to deploy more sophisticated anti-riot techniques. In most Middle East countries, there were low levels of economic growth and development. The Islamic movements resulted into increased terrorist attacks within the region which resulted into reduced economic activities hence slow growth and development.
In my opinion, the rise of the Islamic movements helped the government identify weakness in its security systems. Furthermore, most Middle East nations were being run by autocratic leaders. This is what gave rise to Islamic movements. Muslims were rejecting unnecessary suppressions by autocratic regimes. The movements were also responsible for loss of lives in Middle East. It led to the loss of Arabism in Middle East. The movement’s initial goal was to remain a revolutionary group. The movements brought about democracy in Middle East.
However, some ancient historians argue that it is not clear whether the intention of the movements were to bring democracy. In my view, however, Islamic movements could not bring about the proclaimed promises of democracy in Middle East countries. This is Islam itself is a discriminative religion. It discriminates women as well as non-Muslims. Islamic leaders extended its activities beyond religious boundaries.
Interestingly, some Muslims turned out to be peaceful politicians, seeking and vying for top seats in the governments of Middle East countries such as presidency and membership to parliament. However, the rivalry between Islamic groups themselves remained a mystery without an understandable explanation. Islamic movements were reacting to social deprivations Muslims were experiencing, especially social inequality and political oppression. However, the Islamic movements became threats to the countries’ security, social and political systems. The Islamic movements were able to bring to a halt the aspirations of economic growth and development of most poor and middle class members of the society. Extreme use of violence during the demonstrations caused political instability in most Middle East nations.
On the other hand, the Islamic movements were able to push governments of Middle East countries to implement some policies that were actually beneficial to the interest of the ordinary citizens. The Islamic movements also resulted into emergence of different Islamic traditions and beliefs.
The oil industry led to bitter struggles between Britain, America and Middle Eastern states. These countries were fighting for the control of the oil fields. Britain formulated policies which were meant to hinder her rival, U.S, from purchasing oil fields under her control. In response, America too formulated the Mineral Leasing Act which denied others from accessing oil reserves in America. This dispute was, however, resolved when an agreement was made between the two states.
After a few years, Britain changed its policy to allow American firms to drill oils in British ruled Middle East countries. The American government also imposed a restriction on the production of oil. This move was meant to shield America companies producing oil from incurring losses due to low demand of oil at that moment. Additionally, the US federal government imposed high tariffs on foreign oil so as to discourage its importation form Middle East.
A few years after World War II, United States of America had to remove these tariffs due to its decreased production of oil. I would conclude that even though USA had oil fields, it still depended on foreign oils, especially from Middle East. In addition, the oil industry in Middle East resulted into formulation of various policies by both American and British governments that enabled them fully exploit oil fields.