Meier and Bohte focus on the theme of organizational cheating and specifically the ability of schools districts to generate high scores on the standardized tests by exemption of individual candidates that are most likely to fail, from sitting the examination. The studies these two engage in are only unique as to the sophisticated method of cheating that is involved. This involves institutional rules and procedure to cover up the activity the public c officials are engaging themselves. In other cases, there are reports of similar but unsophisticated cases of cheating. For example, the Russian federation simply hides the results or makes up data to cover failures. The work of these two was to gather information to create substantive reform in the areas of government and the public sector affected by bureaucracy. The bureaucratic reforms and reorganizations that have taken place in the United States are an attempt at the alteration of the institutional power dynamic that rests in government.
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The literature that concerns this area is clear that reforms are not intended only for the decrease of bureaucratic power relative to the officials that were elected. On the other hand, it does suggest that the reforms have a similar outcome as the ultimate goal. For example, the last few decades of the civil reform service that took place in 1978, was an attempt to inject a sense of political responsiveness into the bureau (Bohte and Meier, 2007). The interesting thing is that autonomy is often exercised independently of and sometimes in direct conflict with the expressed preferences of the elected officials. We borrow from the existing illustrations in the influence that bureaucratic actors have on the process of making policy, which is independent of that granted to them or wished for them by the political principals that were involved. Some scholars have suggested possible sources from which this power may arise.
For example, Meier and Bohte have suggested some characteristics of the American political system and the bureaucracies that allow for and necessitate the policymaking powers that include task demands and government organization, as well as, political support, as well as knowledge. Other scholars may note the similar agency characteristics that create the essence of bureaucratic power. Bureaucratic reforms are often made to bolster the con troll of the political overlords; some study show this does not always end up being the case (Bohte and Meier, 2007). Sometimes the reforms unfortunately produce greater bureaucratic influence in the policymaking that is relative to that of the principals themselves. Reinventing the government reforms as well as the performance review, which may reduce the accountability to the political principals by way of substitution of the views and opinions that belong to the elite community? The reforms that are placed may end up being able to exact more control over the outputs in place than the political principals themselves are. In this way, when the reforms are specifically focused on effectiveness, then they may be able to enhance the power of bureaucracy that is relative to the political principals. As noted, the theories of bureaucratic influence have many a time-linked effectiveness to actual power.
Many of the recent reforms of the bureaucratic and the management systems that took place at the federal and the state levels have aimed at the performances. In this way, they have explicitly tried to increase the effective capacity of bureaucracy. At the level of the state these same reforms the actions that are as various as establishing funds for a rainy day or eliminating unproductive barriers that relate to hiring new and qualified individuals to the work force. The performance management systems brought forth by Bohte and Meier aim at the managing of the results as another major action brought forth by the state in order to improve the bureaucratic performance in all the available sectors (Bohte and Meier, 2007). The performance management reforms focus on the performance measures that relate to policy making and place their premium on the results rather than catering to the process. The management practice and reforms such as these have been demonstrated to be able to increase the government performance as concerns a number of instances. Bohte illustrates a connection between the number of service technologies, as well as the proportion of the caseload of the country that is currently in service. At the same time, there are state reform efforts that aim to emphasize the need for employment. They are reducing the state’s welfare caseload in effect.
The relationship between the management effectiveness and the characteristics is also found in the job training act programs. This is in response to a find that suggests local government as well as the human resources management capacity improves on the human resources and the link capacity to the state authorities. The work of Meier and Bohte reintroduces the concept that relates to the span of control for the study of bureaucracy itself (Bohte and Meier, 2007). They derived theoretical expectations and then examined the impact of the scope of influence, on the agency outputs relating to the educational organizations. The logic of representative bureaucracy finds that the minority teachers have more of an impact on systems that have been decentralized. Numerous other internal structures affect the performance of the organization as a whole. Decentralization is a concept that would otherwise be addressed by examining the local units as well as regions of the deferral bureaucracies, which is a concept that needs attention on the forefront.
In many areas, policy is no longer implemented as the statute of a single organization but the contributed effort of multiple corporations, which tend to operate across a myriad of levels of government. The lack of hierarchy in the system, or similar means of control, thus implies the need for different leadership styles for the effective implementation of policy. The analysis of bureaucratic policy and structure according to Meier and Bohte would help us to understand how the decisions and outcomes disseminate through the regional field offices and still manage to navigate through the federal bureaucracies (Bohte and Meier, 2007). Thus, the structure of the bureaucratic organizations matters in the assessment of the different categories of bureaucratic agents.
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