Vietnam War is Cold War Military conflict that took place in Vietnam, Laos and also in Cambodia. It started on 1 November 1955 to 30 April 1975. The next war that came after that was First Indochina War which involved North Vietnam which was aided by its communist associates and also South Vietnam government. It was assisted by United States and other countries which were not communists. The Vietnam People’s Army was involved in several conventional Wars (Mark, 2010).
The Viet Cong, was referred to as inadequately equipped South Vietnamese common front, although it was communist proscribed in several occasions. It was involved in guerrilla war in opposition to anti- communist forces in the area. The United States and South Vietnamese forces mostly used air dominance and also devastating firepower to hunt and wipe out operation which was mostly done in ground forces, artillery and air strikes (Wiest, 2008).
The government of United States surveyed the extent of the war as way of stopping communist from taking over South Vietnam as their fraction of wider tactic of control. The government of North Vietnam referred the war as colonial war because at first the war was against France then it was backed by United States later South Vietnam was also involved. After that War the other countries referred United States as a dummy state. Early 1950 the military advisors from United States had already arrived but early 1960 their participation in the war had declined (Wiest, 2008).
However, in 1962 the number soldiers had multiplied thrice from United States and the battle unit was deployed early 1965. Mostly the fighting intensified in the boundaries although some areas like Laos and Cambodia were seriously bombed. The war reached climax in 1968 and later on, United States ground military were left with no choice but to withdraw from war since it was a policy that was known as Vietnamization. Although both parties had signed the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973 the War started again (Wiest, 2008).
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The Case-Church Amendment policy that was approved by the United States banned American soldiers from participating in the War except when the president held the congressional authorization earlier. The War affected both sides greatly in terms of human beings who were victims. About 3 to 4 million Vietnamese and around 1.5 to2 million Cambodians and Laotians and more to that 51,159 United States military were affected (Wiest, 2008).
Events in Southeast Asia
Phnom Penh was the capital of Cambodia that was conquered and converted to be supporters of Communist Party of Kampuchea and in 17 April 1975 it was named Khmer Rouge. The genocidal policy was enacted for a period of four years which left more than one-fifth Cambodians dead which was approximated to be more than million killings .Following recurring boundaries clashes in 1978, the Democratic Kampuchea also known as Cambodians was attacked by Vietnam also the War was known as Cambodians-Vietnamese War which ousted the Khmer Rouge (Wiest, 2008).
China reacted by attacking Vietnam in 1979 and for sometime the two states located their War in the boundaries the War was named as Third Indochina War or Sino-Vietnamese War .Between 1978 and 1979 about 450,000 tribal Chinese escaped from Vietnam by boat or and also those who were excluded from the land boundaries with China. The royalist government of Laos was overthrown by Pathet Lao in December 1975; in addition to that Laos People’s Democratic Republic was formed. The period between 1975 and 1996 United States was involved in settling several refugees from Lao, though around 250,000 were originally from Thailand together with 130,000 at Hmong (Vinh, 2010).
The number of individuals who were fled from Vietnam, Laos and also Cambodia exceeded 3 million and several used boats to escape although, all most all Asian nations were reluctant to accept refugees .Ever since 1975 around 1.4 million refugees who were initially from Vietnam plus other Asian nations were resettled in United States the others who were more than 500,000 were resettled in Canada, Australia and also France (Wiest, 2008).
Effects in United States
The period after War left several Americans struggling to comprehend the trainings of the military involvement. The chief architect of the War was known as General Maxwell Taylor who had an observation that people had no knowledge of who they were. .Most people imagined that another Korean War was going to start again but the country had changed, in addition to that they had no knowledge about their country North Vietnam nor did they acknowledge South Vietnam allies. Almost all people were unaware of who Ho Chi Minh was? Unless we had acknowledged ourselves first, then we couldn’t make out who our enemies and allies were. However, this would have helped us avoid indulging our self in some filthy dealings which are risky (Wiest, 2008).
Several people recommended that the final malfunctioning of this policy happened when America pulled out from Vietnam. The certified past of United States military distinguished that strategy frequently seemed to be real except for the big issues, tactics and also objectives. The soldiers in Vietnam underwent strategic victory and also deliberate failure although the Vietnam War was a bequest the examples were exceptionally chronological, political, and cultural and also had social factors which were constantly imposed on the soldiers. Victory didn’t depend on the plan only it also involved assessing the strong points and also the weakness of supporters.
President Gerald Ford received undisclosed memo from United States secretary Henry Kissinger which in terms of soldier’s strategy conclusions could not be drawn easily regarding our military forces and that they were not suitable for this type of War, although that unique forces that was formed could not thrive However, the secretary of Defense known as Robert McNamara declared that the success of the soldier conquest by United States military in Vietnam was certainly a risky fantasy and uncertainties surfaced as to the usefulness of the large scale that had continued bombing (Wiest, 2008).
The Army Chief of Staff Haroid Keith Johnson declared that nothing could yield from Vietnam unless the air power functionless. The other person who declared the bombing unproductive was General William Westmoreland he also commented that he had a suspicion that North Vietnamese was relented. It was impossible to bomb Hanai in order to have open table negotiable this portrayed one of the inaccuracies in United States (Wiest, 2008).
In the North the leadership was made up of tough communist who had fought for over thirty years to acquire self governance. The countries had effectively overpowered France although the insistence of two as supporter of independence and also communists was dreadful. The United States defense force policy was doubted because of Vietnam War. The Westmoreland’s attriction approach was seriously mocked by Marine Corps general Victor H.Krulak he referred to it as a misuse of American lives with little probability of having a victorious ending they also had doubt if that military force was competent enough to coach other overseas troops (Levy, 2004).
The War had great impact on the national budget shortage because United States had exhausted $111 billion on the war in the year 1965 to 1975. .More than 3 million American participated in Vietnam War where about 51,193 militaries perished above 150,000 were maimed and not less than 21,000 were made completely handicapped. About 61% of the gentlemen killed in the War they were mostly aged 21 and below (Vinh, 2010).
Vietnam veterans who had signs of posttraumatic stress disorder were approximated to be 830,000.Several Americans escaped and moved to Canada to avoid being affected by Vietnam draft and in addition to that about 50,000 American servicemen were abandoned. The president of United States Jimmy Carter approved a complete, filled and unrestricted pardon to all Vietnam period draft dodgers’ .The Vietnam War issue had details that shown the destiny of most United States service recruits who were listed down as missing in action, however, the issue had been preserved for a long time even after the War ended (Vinh, 2010).
The chemical defoliates
The United States soldiers used chemical defoliants attempts in Southeast Asia since it was among the most notorious method used between 1961 and1971.These defoliates were used in many parts in the country but this chemicals had detrimental effect to the environment since altered the landscape, caused diseases and also contributed most abnormal birth defects more to that it added toxin to food chain (James, 2007).
At the beginning the American soldiers made several attempt of attacking their enemies from their hide outs in canopies and jungles by applying chemicals in those regions. Above all the facts about the expansion of neighboring bases which were either oversized or undersized in what was referred to as Operation Ranch Hand. The task of manufacturing these herbicides that were used in that War was allocated to organizations like Dow Chemicals Company and also Monsanto (Langer, 2005).
The dispersion of defoliants was done in drums that were marked with color-coded bands with inclusion of Rainbow Herbicide, Agents Pink and many more other colors the one chemical that was commonly known was Agents Orange w had a constitute of dioxin which was regarded as it’s by product. In Southeast Asia almost 12 million gallons which were approximated to be about 45,000,000 were spread all over that area by spraying (Langer, 2005).
Mekong Delta was the area where most Ranch Hand Operation took place it’s in this location where United States Navy had to keen with their boats because they were prone to undergrowth attacks at water’s rim. Between 1961 and 1962 the government of Kennedy approved usage of chemicals to wipe out the rice crop. However, between1961 and 1967 about 20 million gallons of herbicides which were concentrated were spread over 6 million acres of crops and trees by United States Air Force by spraying. About 13% of South Vietnam land was affected and in addition to that in 1965 more food crops was contaminated with about 42% herbicides and this was done by use of helicopters, but the other intention of using herbicide was to chase residents into areas that were monitored closely (Langer, 2005).
The government of Vietnam surveyed in 2006 that about 4,000,000 casualties suffered from intoxification of dioxin though the government of United States did not accept that there was scientific connection between Vietnamese dioxin and intoxified casualties of Agent Orange. The study showed that the dioxin levels in Vietnam were high in some places more than 100times.The government of United States had laid down the diseases that occurred in kids of veterans who had ingested the Agent Orange in their system (John, 2004).
Much was talked about concerning the usage of defoliants on whether it was against the policy of the War, but defoliants weren’t grouped as weapons because their usage caused death slowly either by causing diseases like prostate cancer and several types of cancers, peripheral neuropathy B-cell lymphomas, spina bifida and many more diseases in kids of the casualties unlike weapons that caused death on spot or incapacitation (Willoughby, 2003).
Vietnam War Casualties
Between 1955 and 1975 a debate was held concerning the number of soldiers and inhabitant who perished in the War although some findings have failed to include South Vietnamese soldiers who were killed in the last campaign and also Royal Lao soldiers who were Laotians. Some Laotian inhabitants were also killed in the conflict and the number of Cambodian who died in the genocide were estimated to be one million or two and the end results was Khmer Rough success (Werner, 2003).
The government of Vietnam declared that about 1.1 million soldiers died and more than 600,000 were maimed in Hanoi’s conflict with United States. In North and South the number of death that affected residents was approximated to be about 2 million and this resulted to economy reimbursement. Hanoi covered up the number of victims who died in the war to avoid frightening the people. The inhabitant death that resulted from American bombing during the Operation Rolling Thunder ranged from 52,000 to 182,000 (Hall, 2007).