The topic of this study is the strategies used by employers to hire their preferred employees the racial bias which influences the recruitment of inner city workers who are blacks. The main research question which can also be the hypothesis subject to testing is ‘does racial bias and neighborhood influence the recruitment strategy by the employers and hence the number of inner city blacks who find themselves jobs in the white collar jobs?’ throughout the paper, this is what the author addresses trying to find out what strategy was used when and why the employer preferred it to others.
The authors look at other research attempts that have analyzed the impact of race bias to the three recruitment strategy presented in the paper; selective recruitment, interviews and testing. The inner city blacks were associated with poor job skill, untruthfulness and poor job ethics and attitudes. As a result, employers selectively recruited selectively to get quality employees not quantity employees. Examples of theses selective approaches included personal networks. They avoided mass media advertisements. This recruitment method was also cost effective for only a small group of potential employees was used to get the qualified recruits. The other approach was interview and racial bias played an important role in determining whether a black gets a job.
Cultural differences and prejudice made it very difficult for inner city blacks to secure a job especially when the interviews were conducted by a white employer. Difference in race result in difference in the way people pronounce words, attitudes, postures and these differences reduce the communication between the interviewer and the interviewee. It also raises issues of suspicion and as a result the blacks will be rated lower based on theses racial characteristics than their white counterparts. The authors also found out from literature that testing was most fair way of recruiting because the test was rated against a standard and not on subjective personal attitude.
However sometimes employers also combined testing with the rest of the strategies. The research was exploratory because it is trying to clarify the question of what influence does racial bias has on recruitment but the authors do provide an evidence about the extent of racial bias but provides information which can be used for further study.
The authors in the paper addressed two main concepts. The first concept was on racial bias. On race, the authors looked at ethnicity. The second concept focused on recruitment strategies. The authors concentrated on selective recruitment, interviews and tests all of which were borrowed from literature review. Measurements were done in-order to analyze the results. Recruitment strategies were measured by asking the employers their source of recruitment. Selective recruitment came out to be the most preferred strategy by most employers because it is cheap and easy to select the best employees from a small group of candidates. 88 employers out of thee 118 interviewed asked their employees of the people they knew in-order to employ them as opposed to 11.6 employers who used local newspapers to sample who to recruit. Race was measured in terms of categorization.
The paper divided all the firms included in the research to be containing black and white employees. The black employees were represented as a proportion of the total work force. Their job representation was more of a qualitative entry and hence the jobs were coded to make it more quantitative for ease of analysis. The authors achieved their measurement validity in the sense that their results were consistent with other results developed by other researchers.
Also the results developed strong baseline information which can be used for further analysis to establish the challenges which face the minority groups. The regression results gave the descriptive output with the measures of central tendency which are always very important in the initial stages of any research. Also the correlation result gave some idea of the trends of racial bias as compared to the effect they have on the choice of recruitment strategy by an employer.
The authors used a stratified sampling method. The sample included location from where the firms were located. The other attribute of the sample was the industries which represented the aggregate firms the size of those industries and the specific firms which act as the employers of the work force. The sampling process involved use of two directories of Illinois business which were again supplemented with telephone book for categories not represented or underrepresented in the business directory. This was the case because there exist no comprehensive employer list in Chicago.
The open ended questions were attracted long answers and hence the conversations were taped to ensure that no information is lost during coding. The sampling method used by the authors was a probability approach. This is because the author indicates that they applied stratified sampling which involves breaking a whole region like Chicago into smaller manageable regions otherwise referred to as strata.
The strata should have an equal chance of being included in the sample. The industries and firms were also sampled in a stratified way. The authors attained a representative sample. Probability sampling is always representative and not biased. Also the sample size was large enough to avoid it from suffering small numbers inertia. Any sample size >30 is stable enough to give statistically reliable results. Probability sampling methods are always preferred to non probability methods which are biased and the results are not representative. As a result information from non probability research can only act as a baseline for further studies but cannot be wholly adopted for implementation.
The study used two methodologies to analyze the data. The first tool used was regression. The results from the regression analysis gave the way the independent variables influenced the dependent variable. The second method used was the correlation analysis. Correlation analysis gave the direction of the two variables. A negative sign implies that an increase in the independent variable causes a decrease in the dependent variable. A positive sign mean that both the independent and dependent variables move together and in the same direction. The research was a deductive one.
The authors moved allegations and employers personal attitudes about black workers which is a general case to collecting data to find the facts about those allegations. Deductive research analyzes general cases and ends up in making very specific conclusions. The findings of the research were that there was racial bias with the inner city blacks being the victims and most of them facing the challenge of not securing themselves white collar jobs. Also the research found out that the employers decisions were highly influenced by the racial differences between the employer and the employee. The research could generalize the results for it was restricted to entry job and also a small area of Chicago.
One of the limitations is that the research did not have a hypothesis to test. This makes it difficult to apply inference statistics where the results from a single sample can be used to make generalizations about a population from which the sample come. The other limitation was that although the study was done in Chicago, the data was collected in Illinois which makes it difficult to use the result to make conclusions about Chicago population. Some of the variables used in this study were highly qualitative for instance attitude towards a black hence it is difficult to apply statistics in such data.