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This chapter describes the differences that exist between facts and concepts. It presents these differences between concepts and facts from various angles. One such difference is that facts are inefficient for human memory since they can only be remembered at the remembrance level of the human brain, while concepts can easily be remembered even on the other levels of the human brain and thus are efficient for human memory. In concepts, common properties are also known to be shared among members of the group, while in facts members of the group are unique with each member having specific information related to it. Facts exist in three major types which include unique data, objects and associations in statements. Facts, according to the chapter, are stated to be a unique set of information that must be known by being held in memory and are a less efficient form of knowledge (Rossett & Schafer 30).
The chapter also addresses efficient guidelines for teaching and displaying facts with the aim of ensuring that they are clearly understood and stored in human memory. This method of displaying facts will be significant to trainees in helping them understand factual information, which is essential for job performance at the workplace. Displaying and teaching facts in the ways stated in this chapter will help in the passing of the existing memory limitations through the provision of external access to the factual information at hand. Teaching facts will involve writing of factual information for remember-level objectives to be accomplished. Diagrams should then be used to display concrete facts, such as equipments. Facts in the form of data can be easily presented in the form of tables and lists while associative facts are best presented in the form of statements. Teaching of facts will also involve the use of inductive learning to engage learners since teaching facts normally will prove to be boring and tedious. Facts should also be practiced when teaching related content to the fact, which will aid in their memorization. Job tasks that call for the use of these facts should also be given to ensure that facts are accurately memorized. This will act as a good basis for evaluation of the successful acquiring of facts by learners.
In the displaying and teaching of facts, there is a need of providing drill and practice in an effort of ensuring accurate automation of the factual information. Through various researches carried out, factual information has been reported to be automated through numerous trials. Automated factual information is processed in both an accurate and fast manner similarly to the processing of information by a computer. Thus, in an effort of ensuring that information is automated, a drill and practice environment that emphasizes on the processing of facts in an accurate and fast manner will be required. Mnemonic support aids should also be used to enhance the remembrance of factual information (Rossett & Schafer 7).
This information relates very closely to one of the experiences I have had in the learning of Excel. Learning of this needs one to understand and memorize key formulas. In learning of this computer package, I was required first to review the learning objectives of the training, which were all oriented to remember-level objectives. The training required accurate and fast memorization of formulas. This necessitated the use of drill and practice in order to ensure accurate memorization of these formulas. The training adopted a gaming environment that tested on the accurate and fast remembrance of these formulas. These formulas were majorly facts, and thus this gaming environment provided a very good basis for evaluation of these formulas. Mnemonics also was very useful to me in memorization of these formulas. Through numerous trials, the formulas became automated, and thus I was in a good position of working using various formulas in Excel in both an accurate and fast manner. The teacher also conducted practical tests on the use of Excel that called for the use of these formulas, which served as a good method of evaluating us on the successful memorization of these Excel formulas.
The quote that appealed to me most in this chapter was in page three, and it stated, “Factual information is unique because it can only be memorized” (Rossett and Schafer 3) This quote has helped me in understanding the reason behind the need of mnemonics in the memorization of facts. Mnemonics will play an essential role in the memorization of facts since facts, unlike concepts, can only be stored in the remembrance level of the brain. On the other hand, concepts can be stored in both the application and remembrance levels of the brain, and that is the major reason why one can easily memorize concepts rather than facts. With this understanding, one can be in a better position of taking the necessary steps required for the successful memorization of facts.
This chapter clearly discusses in depth facts and various form in which they are presented. It thus provides one with relevant information on the basis of which to distinguish facts from concepts. The chapter is also very useful as it has outlined various approaches that should be taken in teaching and displaying of facts for their successful memorization.
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