Policing can be defined as looking out for something in the community. It has several objectives which are:
1. Avoiding actions that can lead to endangering of life and property.
2. To help the victims in getting their duly owed justice and protect them from the wrath of their attackers again.
3. A constitution of every country deals with ways in which the rights of its citizenry is protected
4. Freedom of movement is enhanced and without theft of vehicle or injury to persons.
5. The minority groups and the handicapped rights are well accorded.
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6. Peace restoration above everything else is of great importance.
7. Prevent potential of injustice and problems in society.
8. Create a secure society
This put more regard on the community on the role of the police and enforces peaceful coexistence emphasizing their need for peaceful coexistence. The more the presence of the police in a community the safer people feel. It is aimed changing the relations of the police and the community. Community based policing is one of the ways of the citizens to help police officers reduce crime rates in a community whilst also improve the crime situation in the neighborhoods (Sciarabba, 1999). It can all be linked to a garden where one weeds off the unwanted plants, and plants new seeds which give new beginning for the seedlings in this case, fighting crime in a given populated area by having more activities of law imposition and more police officers in the community and sensitization of consequence of breaking the law which prosecution and sentencing. The next step that comes in is the repair of an already damaged community by having a youth group centre that helps young people come up with ideas of self building rather than destruction. Gangs are thus reduced as the young can focus their energy on more positive things rather than harm and this way they are a blessing rather than a menace. This has been seen to bring more unity amongst community members and reduction of criminal incidents.
This policy works in two ways: based on the area, it can be local or regional removal of criminal elements and hence reducing incidents endangering the community and this well achieved by community policing because there people known in the communities and if someone would come up and reduce their menace, then it would be for the benefit of the whole community. It is the responsibility of every member to come up with strategies that benefit the rest of the community in crime reduction (Walsh, 2004). Community policing deals with the specific problems affecting the immediate community and those facing them are best to reduce rates of crime and its efficiency is achieved by be in unity with the police officers. This foe example has been used by the NYPD.
Zero-tolerance policing has been seen as a method creating a division between the police and citizens as the slightest thing done makes one a suspect mainly racial related. Community policying also determines various aspects having an optimistic satisfaction of law enforcement agencies in the community masinly achieved by there being a decrease in crime rates in the area, instigating fear among the residents so that eventually they do not commit the atrocities.
It involves the paying attention to the actual problems affecting people and which they would only expect to be handled by the police and the difficulties that they encounter in their duty of work. Problem can be behavioral, determine the offenders and where the offence has been done and time, the problem could also be one that causes danger to other persons. Also included is the police capability of doing their work based both on the physical aspects and the moral duty owed to the community. This kind of policing involves the mass types of community disparities more often dealt with than crime itself and getting ways of preventing their occurrence.
This policy is always open to change and criticism for proper functioning, in the United States it was meant to tackle the drinking and sex offences always on the increase this issue had to be handled not only by the law enforcers but by the public as a whole as in this case it was a menace in spreading STDs, causing deaths on the road and making many children drop out of school.
This policy is a way of improving ways in which police business is conducted by noting the duties as well as looking out for serious crime. They have to identify the problems that give rise to community problems and avoid them from a much unwanted outburst and counter this problems in a way best suited for the job.
There are five objectives of problem solving and this are:
1. Getting rid of the problem where possible.
2. Reduce a problem if a situation calls for it;
3. Reduce effects of the particular problem;
4. Handle the problem in a way that it is more understood and it consequences avoided.
5. Remove the problem from police priority as it is already reduced or no longer a threat to people or if too complex, move it to another agency capable and with the facilities to handle it.
The police concerns should revolve round various aspects such as; proper skill in addressing community problems and knowing how to handle them from their very root basis. The management should not only base their focus on administration and matters directly affecting them in the occupation, then the problem oriented policy will fail. The key goal should be the best way in which one can handle the problem at hand and not only the system. This policy involves the changing of a justice process and problem and deterrence. Which deals solely with the solving of the problem, proper supervision will assist in the reduction of crimes ex-convicts get to start afresh without much difficulty and avoid going back to prisons. Having a sense of responsibility over certain mandate on crimes to the police and for other agencies to take up those beyond the police's capacity. For example, they can come up with a strategy to help street persons get jobs and thus reduce any aspects of them being criminals.
For this type of policing to work, persons must have identified the contributing factors to a certain elements of crime as well as the causes of these factors and mostly for the latter it takes time to change it. The problem can be coming up with strategies that reduce the aspect of a long lasting problem and disarray. The police should not put blame on a lenient system but instead should come up with strategies of improving and enforce proper law formalities for continuance the standard of proof must be thoroughly proved beyond all reasonable doubt before any litigation process begins. These different standards will obviously depend on the various communities at hand. Problem analysis though very important has been one of the aspects letting this policy down as it depends on the various understanding of people, proper analysis can completely remove any element of misappropriation and aid in problem based policing, it provides good ground for reliable response to problem solving. Computerization of records can ease the process of knowing the chronic offenders and assist in their 'taming' whether in correctional facilities or in probation. This research should be extended to the police fraternity itself to sieve of the corrupt officers and retain only those ready to serve the people.
The police should come up with new ways of coming up with new stimuli to problems in society, having an enormous range of response to the many upcoming problems is best suited for any community. Practical response means immediate action, and then working on preventing future recurrence by identifying an aspect that is highly problematic. Working with the community can be of help in making other agencies also identify the following:
- Enforce a sense of responsibility on the problems.
- Take upfront responsibility as law enforcers.
- Work with other agencies in the reduction of problems by also having research being done.
- Where it has no mandate, contact without fail those responsible for such.
- If the problem is persistent and from the same individuals, it is best to expose them for shame and hope for change.
- Reduction of fees for problem solving as in any case it is all part of their jobs and is the main aspect can be achieved by taxation.
Main aim of problem-oriented policing is to come up with new police service to the citizens. Operational strategies of patrolling, answer to incidents, proper emergency response that is why there is a hotline in case of any trouble, investigations by help of forensics, problem solving and eventual reconciliation as this wrong doers still come back to the society reformed and should be accepted. This method is effective only with patience and responsible behavior.
Zero tolerance policing
This is where the police officers use every means within their reach to enforce the law. This can be bad as it can make the problem being faced be pick on discretion of the officer and thus can be unfair. Being tough on crime in a way that there is no room for wrong doers in the society. Strictness can save lives and in this sense can be seen in a situation where the police takes the charge of use Alco blows to detect illegal alcohol levels in blood. In the same way petty crimes are not ignored. It basically means being uttermost strict in all activities to avoid the slightest leeway in the legal system in Arabic countries; their laws are also emphasized by having a strict element of Quran and are marked by high levels of decency.
There has been a debate on the kind of issues and offenses contrive quality of-of-life policing and need to have a completely new bred of lack of proper criminal reduction in the cities. This policy is aimed at making offenders understand that there is no room for lack of respect for human life and other people's property (Silverman, 1996). Since this type of policing began there are reduced offences of this nature; its success has been attributed to better policing advancements and coming up with new mechanisms for functionality. This can be achieved by making rounds and bringing in persons who commit offences mostly petty ones like public urination, littering or graffiti writing, pick pocketing (Kelling, 1996). Such aligning of petty criminal can change a perspective or two on life as more often than not, this are the same people who commit serious crimes.