Free «Reviewing the Literature and Theory» Essay Sample


There is an overwhelming concern regarding the health care quality as an essential function of health mechanisms (President’s Advisory Commission on Consumers Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry, 1998). This focus shows the rising technical superiority of the present health care, the scope for patients to be injured by health care intercessions as well as the multifaceted mechanisms from within health care is delivered (Wellington, 1999). Moreover, quality is being perceived as a significant field of responsibility as well as accountability for rules makers, supervisors, clinicians, donors as well as customers in private and public medical sectors.  

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Traditionally, quality has largely been viewed as a natural effect on a sound health education as well as good purposes of the field of health practitioners. Standards of professionalism, trust as well as clinical autonomy have been dominant (Leatherman & Sutherland, 1998), and such standards have highlighted a strong ethic of a doctor’s responsibility for the patient, reinforced by the impact of the tort mechanisms that has tended to concentrate on the values of practice of the individual considered instantly responsible for treatment results (Leape, 1994). As such, the existing medical cultures tend to personalize inaccuracy and anticipate perfection within medical care, and this is underpinned by public, privates plus media attitudes towards responsibility of the clinical occupation that tend to be independently focused, castigatory and blame stemmed (Wellington, 1999).   

The United States benefits from high and, probably, unparalleled level of quality from its Medical Care System, an extent of quality which is mainly taken for granted. Persons normally are relatively satisfied with their own medical care as well as their own physicians even though they may express dissatisfactions with a number of facets of the mechanism of care, like access or fiscal barricades to care. In spite of these justifiably positives opinions that, in general, the quality of care is high in the nation, a number of facts proposed that all is not well in giving surety of high quality care to everyone. Misconduct crisis are believed to mirror a weakening patient-physicians connection amongst other things. Disparities in health requirements or resources do not describe satisfactorily vast disparities in per populace rates of employment of services and the extent of correspondence amid disparities in patient results, and disparities in employment is yet open to question (Bedroussian, DeVol & Ross, 2007). Escalating health care expenses prompt over more strict attempts at cost containment plus more rigid management of the use of services like attempts are extensively viewed to threatened quality of care.

There are several investigations of unexplained disparities in treatment pattern crossways, a wide of situations plus concern about expansion within the costs of health care (Richardson, 1990). For instance, there are wide proofs that an American frequently does not receive the quality they require although the U.S spends more funds for each person on health care than any other country in the world. Preventative care is underused leading to higher expenses on sophisticated and advanced illness (Mangione-Smith et al, 2007). Patients with chronic illness like heart illness, hypertension and diabetes do not get proven and efficient treatments like drugs therapies plus self-management quality services to assist them more effectively control their situations. These issues are made worse by a lack of harmonization of care for patients with chronic illness. The highlighting fragmentations of the heath care mechanisms are not surprising provided that health care provider does not have the fees support or other apparatus they need to converse and work efficiently to advance patient quality care services. 

Problem Statement

It is important to realize that medical care is a very vital thing in the world nowadays. With no practitioners as well as scientists, advanced solutions to the illness and other worse conditions may never be found out. The majority customers of medical care plus practitioners are the patients who seek for quality services when they feel sick or when they need medical attention. The main issue may be workforce issues, and whether the employees have adequate education at all levels in order to offer quality care to the patients. Are patients receiving quality care in medical care they attend? What can be done to improve these services in medical care? Why government is involved in enhancing quality care services?

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The Current Issues in Medical Centers Affecting the Quality Care of the Patients

In several decades, various studies recognized issues in patient as well as ambulatory care. They incorporated extreme or unsuitable surgery, variables results of surgical process, noso-comial infections and issues in the employment of laboratory tests this include overuse, underuse and misuse, whereby underuse happens when a patient does not obtain care which is medically indicated, for instance, the failure to make use of generally available screening tests for all patients who may gain from (Asch et al, 2006). Then overuse take place when a patient gets care, which is not medically indicated; for example, patients given antibiotic to treat a cold or even use of imaging devices for someone with the first of lower backache, while misuse occurs when care is offered is poor or inaccurately, for example a wrong site surgery. From forty-four thousand to as many as ninety-nine thousand people die in hospitals every year as an outcome of medical inaccuracy, which may have been avoided. Medication inaccuracy hurt 1.5m Americans per annum, and treating these injuries caused by these inaccuracy costs about 3.5 billion of U.S dollars per year. The lack of suitable follow-ups of positive results, unsuitable diagnosis or treatments of universal severe situation like respiratory infections plus extreme or unsuitable use of prescribed drugs is another issue in many hospitals. In general, the key issues are based from the observed or presumed extreme or inappropriate use of services. Nursing home care was a nationwide scandal even though the issues here were under provision of needed care. Any review of the circumstances nowadays may underline several of the similar issues; as well, there is a perception that many elderly people are usually discharged too early.

Disparity in services is another main current issue in the quality of care in that there persists to be a pattern of wide disparity in health care incorporating regional disparities as well as small area disparities. This is a clear pointer which health care practices have not kept the standard with the evolving science of health care to make sure evidence-stemmed practice within the United States. The variation in quality is also an issue facing the quality of health care. Even though quality issue affects the populace, they might be mainly marked for associates of ethnic as well as racial minority populace. The research was carried out examining the employment of thrombolysis for patients who had suffered a heart attack. It established that whereas this proof stemmed life-saving treatment was underused, every black beneficiary had less probability to get this treatment rather than whites (McGlynn et al, 2003).   

The Resolutions to the Current Issues Affecting Quality Care of the Patients

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The issues of unexplained disparity in clinical practices are challenges in several nations. There is an expanding interest in establishing ways of distinguishing amid desirable and undesirable disparities (Buchan 1998), and in approaches to comprehend as well as better address disparities in treatment pattern for the same conditions by underpinning the practice of evidence-based medicine (Richardson, 1990; Braithwaite, 1997). Quality of care enhancement is from a combination of measurement, reporting as well as action. Health care organizations and doctors frequently employ measurement outcomes within to compare their outcomes to nationwide or local benchmark and make modification where needed.

The Agency for Health Research Quality and its predecessor agencies have been investigating and promoting a study on quality care for more than 2 years. They have suggested that the quality care may be improved by putting some practice in place such as atrial fibrillation. Many medicare patients with this may gain from a fresh quality care enhancement developed with support from Agency for Health Research Quality. The implementation of CHAD2 technique for forecasting risks of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation is more perfect than existing techniques of CHAD2 that can be particularly useful for recognizing low risk patients who, by taking aspirin, may prevent the office visits, expenditures as well as side effects related to warfarin that holds risk of bleeding. Another solution to the current issue of the quality of care is racial plus ethnic disparity within medical communications. The hospitals are supposed to develop and test interventions to enhance doctor – patient interaction pattern to decrease racial as well as ethnic variations in employment as well as the results. The use of acute otitis media that parents are to be educated on how to stop using antibiotics, carries on to be a major kid health issue. The average kid experiences 2.6 acute otitis media events each year within the first years of life. The overuse of antibiotics for acute otitis media has resulted into emergence of multi-drugs defiant pathogens even though several studies indicate that eighty to ninety per cent of kids with acute otitis media may recover with no antibiotics. This randomized managed testing in assessing the safety, efficiency, cost to parents as well as acceptability of communications consisting of parents’ education, non-antibiotics symptomatic therapy, plus careful follow-up of children with mild acute otitis media. The objective is to establish the security of withholding antibiotics from kids with mild acute otitis media and change parents’ expectations concerning common antibiotics treatment of acute otitis media. Therefore, addressing all these health quality care issues may be solved thus offering patients the services they deserve.

The Purposes Statement in Relationship to Problem Statement which States what is to be Accomplished if the Project is Implemented

Putting this project into practice, I would make sure that the care providers improve their capabilities to offer the high quality care services to the patients; also I would ensure that the care providers measure and publicly report their performances as an essential way to comprehend where quality gaps are taking place. By implementing this project, I will help the major forces, which influence health care in any one place to support each other in achieving a number of essential objectives for change. I would also try to assist patients as well as customers to comprehend their crucial role in identifying and demanding quality health care. The project would assist in ensuring that all patients-seeking medical attention will receive quality services care. Putting this project into practice, I would also better still try to push the government to fund and ensure there are enough resources to all medical institutions for the purposes of improving quality care services for the patients. This project would also ensure that the medical centers have well-skilled workforce, who would deliver the best quality care service to the patients. 

Defining Searchable, Answerable Questions

Why is government involved in enhancing quality care services? Government has interceded with the health care markets since there is a significant proof that markets do not to operate economically when left to their own accord (Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, 1999b). The reasons why government should intervene normally mirror the concern for making sure that equity of access to satisfactory mechanisms which support quality health at cheaper prices (Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, 1999c). Therefore, the government have to intervene in order to provide sufficient funds and ensure that resources are available so as to meet a patient’s expectations of high quality care services. The issue of workforce may be achieved through sustaining competence. Recently there have been several moves towards founding mechanisms to ensure that experts sustain their competence vocational registration for common doctors entering common practice to finish suitable post-graduates training as well as ensure that these skills were sustained throughout their undertaking process for treating any patient. Therefore, provision of adequate training, education as well as better equipment and ensuring that these practitioners are aware on how to use them may lead to the provision of high quality care services to the patients. 


While several patients frequently do not get medically required care, others get care which may be unnecessary or even harmful due to the issues the medical centers are facing. However, in order to improve the care services to be offered to patients, it is necessary to reform the health care delivery mechanisms thus all medical centers would be able to deliver high quality care services to all patients.

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