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Free «Social Policy» Essay Sample

Introduction

To begin with, the term Black Africans came into world view in the year 1991 after a census that led to the Africans being classified as Black Africans in the context of the Great Britain. As a matter of fact, this is one of the minority ethnic groups in Britain of which its origin and living standards have received little research. It is from this point of view that this research will be directed to the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs on black Africans living in London. It is a common knowledge that London is one of the greatest cities in Britain given that it is a metropolitan area with the highest numbers of educational institutions among other common characteristics of great cities in Britain.

 In this sense, unemployment and the fact that most Black Africans do unskilled jobs has led many of them to live in poverty and others living in segregated social economic areas. As a matter of fact, this is a factor that has limited the Black Africans in London resulting to poverty, poor living conditions, inaccessibility of good schools and healthcare along with limited access to white collar jobs. There are many factors that have contributed to the state of affairs that describe the Black Africans in London; however in this case, the main areas of concentration will be the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs on Black Africans particularly in London.

 In this case, it does not mean that these are the only factors that have affected the Black Africans but there are others as well of which they will not be covered in this context. Outstandingly, there has been limited past studies as well as researches that have covered the impact of unemployment and unskilled on Black Africans living in London. There are various reasons for this factor inclusive of the fact that it was not until 1991 that census brought this ethnic minority group in Britain into the world view. In particular, the Black Africans living in London are the third largest minority ethnic groups in the city. To be precise, 13 percent of this group makes up the population living in inner London. However, their areas of concentration along with their socio economic status provide good ground for information related to their job status.

Following this point, the topic of concern will be the impact that unemployment and the fact that Black Africans only do unskilled jobs has had on them. More to this point, the reasons contributing to unemployment and unskilled jobs being prevalent among them will be explored. Along with this, the background of this problem will be explored at length at the same time stating the problem of research. In line with this, the purpose of the study and the research questions will be brought into view. In this connection, the importance of the study or the research carried will be explained at length as well as scope of the study being defined.

This however, will not exclude the definition of terms, limitations of the study and in the larger perspective the literature review. The research methods employed for the study along with the research findings will be at the same time brought into context. Of importance to note, the discussion of the findings, conclusion and recommendations will determine the success of the study as this is the part that will carry the greater weight of the study. Following this point, the summary of the study, general conclusions and future recommendations of the study will be included.  

Background of the Problem

When the term background is mentioned in any context, it brings about issues to do with the foundation of something or the setting of something. In this connection, the foundational information or rather the setting of the unemployment and unskilled jobs by Black Africans living in London makes the background for studying the effects unemployment and unskilled jobs has had on the Black Africans living in London. So to articulate, the establishment of the background information behind unemployment and unskilled jobs by the Black Africans in London will pave way for establishing the impact it has had. In line with this, the problem under study is the fact most of Black Africans living in London are either unemployed or doing unskilled jobs. In the face of the whites, this almost goes unrecognized despite the effects it has had on the Black Africans (Parkinson, Foley & Judd, 1988). Various attributes of the Black Africans living in London provide enough information related to the kind of jobs they do while others display the characteristics of unemployed altogether.

 According to Hamnett (2003), the level of ethnic unemployment in London has been higher than that of white population (p.119). He continues to reveal some substantial differences between ethnic groups stating that the most of the unemployed are the recent immigrant groups. At the same time, he states that the 1991 census as stated in the introduction pointed out that the unemployment rate for the Black Africans in London was three times the white rate which was pointed out to be 10 percent. In line with this, the unemployment was further stated to be common among men as compared to women with the most affected being the ones in the age bracket of 25 years and below.

In particular, the census stated that the black youth males were the most unemployed translating to what was termed as black youth unemployment crisis.  Along with this, the research further pointed various reasons for the differential positions of the various groups in the labor market. As a result, certain ethnic minorities’ unemployment was attributed to the virtue of residential location in relation to the available distribution of the jobs (Hamnett, 2003, p.119). However, this did not explain in detail the whole aspect of the reasons leading to unemployment and in particular for the Black Africans living in London.

Of importance to note is the fact that poor immigrants inevitably start off their housing careers in the worst housing as they lack education, the skills, the contacts and the language necessary and language that may necessitate the their entry and access to good jobs and reasonable incomes (Hamnett, 2003, p.121). More specifically, the minorities in London’s labor market have a disadvantaged position in the context of the housing market. With the advent of the New Common Wealth immigrants in London, there came into being the invariability translating many immigrants living to poor quality and overcrowded private rented accommodation. As a result, they faced discrimination and infrequent harassment just to mention a few.

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Another point to note is the fact that most of the Black Africans in London by 1991 were estimated to have 59 percent of them living in social rented houses while only 25 percent who owned homes. Interestingly enough, there are many of the reasons that contribute to unemployment of the Black African and the fact that most of them engage in unskilled jobs. As such, there seems to be some structured segregation that has concentrated the Black Africans on the low class areas of the region making it almost impossible to access employment opportunities. Notably, discrimination by the whites has made the Blacks to suffer a lot of unemployment as the whites are preferred to them. This is particularly termed as racial discrimination which has in most part led to the blacks being disadvantaged in the labor market. Historically, the blacks were brought to Britain as servants and seamen and this has greatly contributed to how the Black Africans are viewed in the face of the whites (Palmer& Poulton, 1987).

As well, the black workers from the Britain’s colonies and ex-colonies have in the past been used as a source of cheap labor in the British Imperialist economy. In the same line of thought, post war period was marked by immigration of blacks to Britain with many of them being trained directly by the government. As such, they were trained to do jobs that no one else would venture in as it was a period of labor shortage. As such, they were recruited to unskilled jobs in the transport services and the National Health Service abbreviated NHS (Palmer& Poulton, 1987, p.38).So to speak, the blacks do occupy a particular place in the class structure as well as occupational structure.

 Essentially, the unemployment and doing unskilled jobs by the blacks has been attributed in the most part to the effects of racism which has been in place since time in memorial. Remarkably, the level of a black worker in London is lower as compared to the white counterparts. As such, the Black men most likely engage in manual work of which such manual jobs are likely to be unskilled or semi skilled. Moreover, the largest percent of the blacks, most likely work in low paying industries such as clothing and textiles along with service jobs in hospitals, shops and catering (Palmer& Poulton, 1987, p.38).

From a general point of view, the main reasons why the blacks will continue being unemployed is the fact that most of them do not have the required educational qualifications. Furthermore, the aspect of them being over presented in the unskilled and semi skilled jobs will continually maintain them in the sector of the unskilled jobs as well as making others remain unemployed. Above and beyond, the aspect of direct discrimination that continues in the job market will continue to play a major role. Another point that research has pointed out as to contribute to the state of unemployment and carrying out of unskilled jobs by the Black Africans is the fact that blacks are in most part composed of younger age structure within their population (Palmer& Poulton, 1987).  Needless to say, the background information that has been provided has a great role to play in bringing into view the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs amongst black Africans in London who make a large percentage among the ethnic minorities in the city.

Statement of the Problem

Over a long time, black Africans in London have been economically and socially segregated. So to speak, various reasons have contributed to the state of affairs witnessed in the last several decades. In this sense, unemployment and unskilled jobs on black Africans living in London has been pointed out as to have great effects. As such, it is the combination of these two aspects that has led to the poverty and the living standards of the Black Africans previously witnessed. Occasionally, Black Africans have been associated with high rates of mental problems of which they emanate from the way they are treated by the whites (Thornley, 1992). Notably, the city of London as earlier on stated has a large percent of Black Africans with poor living standards owing to unemployment and unskilled jobs of which they pay so low wages.

 From a general point of view, the living standards of the Black Africans are so low and in most cases, they live in social rented houses of which they have to pay for them. At the same time, they are the unhealthiest in that there is inaccessibility of healthcare services as well as quality heath care services. In the same line of thought, they have low levels of education as they have limited resources that make them to be unable to pay for education. Taking into consideration the factors of low level education, poor quality health services, poor living standards and the fact that those that do unskilled jobs have low wages and salaries, it is evident that unemployment and unskilled jobs on Black Africans have had great impact on them translating to great numbers of deaths and mental illnesses (Pacione, 1997).

Although this has been the case, there has been very little that the government has done in order to address the situation of the Black Africans in London. Just as it can happen to any one else, unemployment leads to many unwanted problems. In this sense, many Black Africans have to live in social rented houses with few social amenities. Even though some may be educated, chances of getting white collar jobs are limited owing to discrimination along with the fact that Black Africans are structured of young people. Owing to the fact that most of them were in the past taken as slaves, servants and seamen, they are not believed to be in a position to do better jobs than the unskilled low paying jobs (Palmer& Poulton, 1987).Therefore, the main problem is the fact that the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs on black Africans living in London has received little attention despite its detriment to the concerned.

Purpose of the Study

Following the issue under discussion, several reasons have triggered the conducting of the research. In this sense, the unemployment and unskilled jobs on black Africans living in London has had great negative effects whose effect has gone almost unnoticed. Along with this, racism and prejudice attitude has greatly contributed to the unemployment of the Black Africans and many of them being given to unskilled jobs. Due to this factor, the Black Africans in London have been suffering from discrimination and they in actual sense live in poor conditions that many of the whites would not like to live in.

As such, it seems that some structured racism and discrimination on the basis of color has been in place without anyone giving into its attention. This is to suggest that the purpose of studying the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs on black Africans living in London is to bring into the world view the poor conditions of these ethnic minorities. By so doing, the injustices carried out against these people will be exposed by the study and thus the government among others may intervene. In this context, it may be that Black Africans living in London have suffered that long for the reasons that the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs to them has not been researched on or rather brought into view. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to research on effects that unemployment and unskilled jobs have had on Black Africans in London. This is in order that injustices against the Black Africans in London may be addressed at the same time making a provision for interventions as well as recommendations on how to narrow the gap between the whites and the black Africans in London as a global city.

Research Questions

London as a global city has a lot of activities that take place bearing in mind that the Black Africans in question are as a result of immigration, enslavement, others taken as seamen and servants altogether. Remarkably unemployment and unskilled jobs have had effects on the lives of the ethnic minorities like the Black Africans in the global city of London. Previously, there was some economical recession that remarkably widened the gap between the blacks and the whites. In this case, research questions that can bring into view the impact of these factors will be brought into the context.  In relation to those Black Africans seeking for white-color job, reasons for disqualification in British labor will be explored. The question of the Black African experiences with the employers and the way some lose their jobs is another question of research. 

First, some questions that need to be established is the job experiences in the population of the Black Africans in London. In line with this, the issue of whether one is employed or not is of great importance in the research. Another research question that will be addressed is how comfortable the respondents have been in doing the jobs which they do. The reasons for the under-representation of the black Africans in the high occupational positions in white collar jobs will also be a question of study. Accordingly, research questions of whether the Black Africans are comfortable with the level of the jobs given to them or not are of great importance. Furthermore, the research will address the experiences the Black Africans have had in the jobs that they do.

Generally, the research questions will address the social impact that unemployment and low-paid jobs play in the lives and experiences of Black Africans immigrants in the UK and especially those who reside in London. Altogether the newly arrived black African migrants in London will have their experiences in the labor market explored. Employment and work experience for African Blacks in London will also be a question that will be addressed by the research. Social, psychological and economical impacts of unemployment that continually face the Black Africans will be brought into view in the research altogether.

Importance of the Study

One may question the importance of the studying the social impact that unemployment and low-paid jobs play in the lives and experiences of Black Africans immigrants in the UK and especially those who reside in London. However, it is important to bring out the fact that having a job is so important in the life of any individual and whether a white or a Black African in London, being employed is so important. More to this point, the unemployed are those people without a paid work but who are in reality available to take up a job (Walsh, Stephens.& Moore, 2000, p.297). In connection to this, there has been an increased employment opportunities in the UK and in particular London. Nonetheless, this has not kept pace with the number of people who really want to work.

 In specific terms, the people who are in white collar jobs have higher earnings and as such they are higher as compared to those that have lower paid jobs which involve the unskilled jobs. In fact, those people who are in jobs or rather employed in good positions are in a better economic position than those that are not. In the same line of thought, the unskilled jobs offer low incomes such that they cannot afford high standards of living. Basically, the only way to economic security for majority of the population is being employed of which many Black Africans lack.

Likewise, psychological and sociological studies have in the past pointed out that unemployment has a clear connection with the deteriorating mental well being and motivation of the concerned individuals. Outstandingly, employers have a tendency of requesting for the recent work or employment history as a basis of applicant’s being considered for a job. Usually, being out of work or rather unemployed has a far greater negative economic effect along with the fact that it is associated with an increased sense of marginalization (Walsh, Stephens & Moore, 2000, p.317).

Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers a wide range of areas as well as issues. In this sense, it involves the psychological, sociological and economical aspects of the Black African residents who reside in London. The study in particular, covers individuals who are young and old altogether. This is for the reason that the Black African population in London global city is composed of young people of 25 years and below (Hamnett, 2003). This is for the recent immigrants in the UK and more specifically in London. This however, does not exclude the old population with old men and women who have for a couple of years had an experience with the British labor and so far integrated in the labor market.

 From the broader point of view, the impact that unemployment and low-paid jobs play in the lives and experiences of Black Africans immigrants in the UK and especially those who reside in London describe the scope of study under discussion. The psychological, sociological and economical effects of unemployment and unskilled jobs to the Black Africans in London will provide the whole scope of the study. Needless to say, interviewing the black Africans in London concerning their experiences in their search for jobs and general experiences with the British Labor is another aspect that the scope of this study has covered. At the same time, experiences of the Black Africans in London especially in the labor market while seeking for jobs as well as their experiences with employment expounds the scope of the study altogether. All said and done, examining the social, psychological and economical lives of the Black Africans living In London marks the central part of the study in the larger perspective. 

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Definition of Terms

Having stated the scope of the study in question, it is important to bring into view the definition of some terms. In this context, the Black Africans living in London are those Blacks in UK, London as immigrants. They might have immigrated in search for jobs or some like those in Nigeria who landed in UK , London as seamen, slaves and servants during colonialism. In most cases, there are those that came from Nigeria and Sierra Leone among others. However, it is important to note that Black Africans are those Blacks whose origin is Africa and as such they immigrated to UK for reasons provided above. . 

As such the employed are those people who are in paid work in an employee or self employed capacity, or who are on government backed training and employment programs. Similarly, the unemployed are those people without paid work but are available to take up a job. Besides this point, there is another category of those people who are members of adult population some of whom may desire to have a job and others who do not have one (Walsh, Stephens & Moore, 2000). Unskilled jobs in this context refer to those jobs that require little or no skills inclusive of educational skills. At the same time, white-collar jobs are professional or managerial jobs which require educational skills and proficient attained through education.

Limitations of the Study

Needless to say, the study of the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs on Black Africans living in London has various limitations if it may be said. In this context, some of the limitations involve limited sources of information as the research has not been done by many individuals. Biased information from the interviewees as well as a study sample which may end up under-representing the population under study may limit the study of the topic in question.

Moreover, the study may be limited owing to financial constrains to finance the conducting of the research. So to speak, this is one of the greatest limitations owing to the fact that carrying interviews of the Black Africans need financing. In addition, inaccuracy of the information provided may limit the study altogether. Above and beyond, limitation may arise owing to the challenges of covering a considerable number of people in a population who may provide accurate and reliable information. This is to suggest that the interviews carried out may not be absolutely reliable.    

Literature Review

In spite of the many limitations that may have challenged the study of the impacts of unemployment and unskilled jobs on the Black Africans living in London, in the past some other researchers have ventured in the same field or related field. As a result, they have some reliable information worthy to be reviewed in order to come up with a better study. Researchers have pointed out that unemployment has tremendous effects and more specifically in relation to the ethnic minority Black Africans living in London. As a matter of fact, unemployment has been associated with adverse economical effects, sociological and psychological effects (Palmer& Poulton, 1987).  

Fundamentally, economical effects mean that one cannot be able to meet the economical needs. For instance, families with heads who are unemployed are in greater risks of poverty with the families with all household unemployed being hit the most. (Walsh, Stephens & Moore, 2000). Following this point, lone parent household suffer the most in this context. Most important to note is the fact that the effects of unemployment are directly linked to the way the society defines and responds to the role that is played by employment.

According to research, people who have been unemployed or are low paid in unskilled jobs, often have higher risk of future unemployment and low pay. This is to suggest that it is not usually easy for the families that are unemployed to cater for their basic needs with efficacy. For the Black Africans living in London, their dwellings are described by low levels of living and scarce or rather limited social amenities. In this sense, their economic position which determines the kind of food one takes, accessibility of healthcare services, education attained, accessibility of job opportunities, the conditions of living, clothing  and everything else that determines how one can be economically affected. In most cases, society tends to marginalize the poor in the society and as such, Black African living in London, have most of them being marginalized. Apart from the economical effects of unemployment which directly affects one’s income leading to poverty, there are also social effects of unemployment.

Following this point, Walsh, Stephens & Moore (2000), asserts that social effects of unemployment translates to isolation and stigmatization. A certain research carried in connection to this point, pointed out that some of the respondents who were interviewed concerning their social life in relation to unemployment pointed out that long term unemployment has the effect that leads one experiencing loneliness, isolation, stimulation and lose of self respect. Such conditions describe the lives of the Black Africans in London who feel isolated as they are unemployed and thus they feel disaffection and exclusion with a resulting lack of commitment to the area of resident. Psychological effects involve the effects that affect the mental states of the unemployed.

As a matter of fact, the unemployed have lower levels of psychological well being, ranging from symptoms of anxiety and depression to self harm and eventually suicide. Again in this context, people who experience long term unemployment as it is for black Africans in London who live unemployed owing to their color and the discrimination along with educational disqualification, they have eventual feelings of alienation and demoralization (Walsh, Stephens & Moore 2000). 

Also, research has pointed out that early unemployment is responsible for later damage of labor market performance of the black Africans in London. According to Pacione (1997), the housing markets in London have not worked in favor of the black ethnic minority in London as they could not afford good housing. This is because the houses required renovation and repair which proved so expensive to the Black African who have little income. Another point to note is that research in the past has attributed the segregation of the Black Africans to live in isolated poor and deprived regions leaving them into great poverty as they are either unemployed or rather work in limited skilled jobs or rather unskilled jobs.

Given to the literature review on the impacts of unemployment and unskilled jobs on Black Africans living in London, it is evident that unemployment has had effects on the lives of the Black Africans living in London. From the past researches on this topic, unemployment of the Black Africans in London has been brought about by racialized labor markets which are vulnerable not only to global shifts in production technology but local processes of discrimination and prejudice (Pacione1997). It has also been pointed out that the Black Africans in London are the first to be hit by recession as they work in the declining manufacturing industries located in the inner urban areas. As such, they are paid so low and in other cases they end up not been employed. Consequently, the Blacks remain in poor conditions that affect them socially, economically and psychologically leading some to death in the long run.

Research Methods

Having reviewed some literature on the social impact that unemployment and low-paid jobs play in the lives and experiences of Black Africans immigrants in the UK and especially those who reside in London, it is important to provide the research methodology employed. As such, in order to obtain the information concerning the topic under study, books as sources of information were used. More to this point, the use of direct interviews with the Black Africans living in London was conducted.

This is to suggest that several questions were structured to help research by interviewing and thus such questions addressed with the sole aim of sourcing information regarding the impact that the unemployment and low-paid jobs done by most Black Africans in London has had. In this combination, it is important to generally put it that interviews and books as sources of information were used in this case. The books will be cited at the end of the research as references. In regard to the interviews, the results of it thereof will be explained within the body of the research.

Research Findings

As it has been stated, books have been used as sources of information for social impact that unemployment and low-paid jobs play in the lives and experiences of Black Africans immigrants in the UK and especially those who reside in London. In line with this, there has been a lot that the information in the books has pointed to. First, results from the books have cited poverty as one of the impacts of unemployment and low paid jobs on Black Africans who live in London.

Pacione (1997) asserts that Black Africans in London have been affected greatly by unemployment and low paid jobs which jeopardize their lives. In relation to this point, Black Africans live in isolation and they are in actual sense marginalized. It has also been pointed out that they have been economically disadvantaged in that they receive very little pay from the unskilled jobs they often engage in. As such, the Black Africans have faced unemployment as they have and others could not integrate in the white dominated labor market.

Again, economical effects of unemployment and unskilled jobs have been associated with low standards of living as what one is earning it is not enough to cater for the family. Besides this point, research has pointed out that unemployment and low paid jobs have affected the Black Africans by depriving them the sociological benefits. This is accomplished by the Black Africans being isolated by the whites, stigmatization and prejudice along with discrimination on the basis of color and race.

Socially, the Black Africans in London are seen in terms of black in that they are discriminated against. Arguably, psychological effects have been noted in that unemployment is interlinked with one’s mental wellbeing. Death has also been pointed to as an Impact of unemployment along with poor housing of the black Africans who are highly concentrated in the regions of poor living standards. In particular, the black Africans in London are the largest number living in social rented houses with very poor living standards.

Another impact of unemployment is the fact that depression, stress and suicide have been so much been associated with the unemployed. A different Impact has been noted of which it is connected with long term unemployment of which it is associated with a tendency of the Black Africans losing the morale of seeking for employment. Crimes have also been associated with many of the Blacks resolving to engage in crime for their survival. Interestingly enough, this has increased the abuse of drugs by the Black Africans as they have no prospects living a better life since they have remained unemployed. Besides the provisions of books concerning the topic under discussion, interviews have pointed out to some impacts of unemployment and unskilled jobs to specific individuals. These will be argued out under discussions.

Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendations

In this framework, it is of great importance to bring into the context the fact that impact of unemployment and low paid jobs on the lives and experiences of the Black Africans is indistinguishable. So to articulate, the Black Africans in London have been living in the marginalized areas of the city of which many have suffered without anyone noticing or rather taking into consideration their conditions. Remarkably, there has been a wide gap that has existed between the Black Africans and the whites especially in the labor market.

 
 
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Benson (1981) argues that, the gap between the whites and the Black Africans was great that in schools, work place, and public services one could easily recognize it. In this sense, schools had children of the whites playing from one side while the ones for blacks playing from the other side. Therefore, it is the expectation of every child to be treated unequally in the unequal city of London. Outstandingly, whites in this city are better placed to secure a job in the top occupational positions or in the so called white collar jobs while for the Blacks even when one is qualified securing a job prove to be almost impossible. This is an aspect that has been shaped by discrimination of the Blacks by the whites based on the color and race.

Following this point, many of the Black Africans in the city live in deprived regions of the city whereby they have to pay for the house rent. This is to suggest that they live in social rented houses of which social amenities are almost impossible to get and if present they are limited. At this point, it is essential to bring into context the fact that in most cases the impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs to the Black Africans in London almost go without being seen. Since their problem is not noticed in most cases, it has been so hard to bring a lasting solution to the lives and experiences of the Black Africans living London.

Actually, only a few researchers have ventured in this case to expose the injustices that have been carried out by the whites to the Black Africans. Debatably, Black Africans in London live in the most deprived areas that in most cases bring them to a decline and thus making it hard for those who live in such areas to take the advantage of opportunities presented to them. Due to the conditions of the areas that the Blacks live in this case, some who find out ways to leave the areas of concentration do leave the others who have no hope to seek means of surviving with the very little wages that is gotten from the unskilled jobs often done.

Usually, those that live in these deprived areas are those people with low incomes or simply unemployed and in such situations, such people do not have a choice of where to live as they are economically unstable. Essentially, the places that black Africans occupy in the city of London leave them without any other option than to live with limited job network as they cannot access jobs due to their color and discrimination that has plagued the workplace(Crisp, 2004). Potential employment opportunities are rare in such areas as fewer resources are present and thus they cannot attract investments. Life in these areas is unbearable due to lack of income or absence of it altogether.

Despite the fact that life in these areas is unbearable and poor owing to poverty and other related issues, the residents have got no option as they are financially challenged and cannot afford the lives that many aspire to live. This leads to them living in segregated areas of poverty and low socioeconomic conditions being isolated from the larger community of the British society. They as a result develop antisocial behavior and vandalism which limits people from venturing in their area of residence. As such, this is the condition that the Black Africans live in London without any prospect of seeing deliverance from the power of discrimination (Crisp, 2004). Desperation and poverty are the some of the words that can best describe their condition.

Research has put forward that economical effects are adverse leading to many other related effects. This is to mean that earning a good income is a sign of economic security which determines the life that one lives as well as the social class that one may fit. Conspicuously, the economic security of the Black Africans in London is limited as they earn very low wages from the unskilled jobs they do along with the fact that most of them are unemployed. This has led them to great poverty.

As a consequence, they remain uneducated as they cannot afford to pay for education as they are financially limited. This further limits their chances to qualify for employment in the white collar jobs. As a result, they end up remaining in the position of doing the very odd jobs they detest. Of a truth, the condition of the Black African living in London is worse that thought of. This is due to the factors of poverty and economical status that limit them from exploiting their full potential. Consequently, they may end up remaining in the same odd jobs and others unemployed as they lack the right qualifications (Walsh, Stephens& Moore, 2000).

Another important point to note is that economical status of the Black Africans does not only limit them from attaining the right education qualifications for white collar jobs but other aspects of their lives are affected. In consistent with this, they are not healthy wise protected as they cannot access the right health care services. They are in this case limited by finances and as such they are plaqued by sicknesses of which they are unable to attend to. From a broader point of few, even child birth control for them may prove to be an exercise in futility and as a result, they bring up many children who may end up engaging in crime as they have got no means of living a healthy life. Again in this context, the economical effects go beyond the financial inadequacy to a level of affecting the social lives of such people. Politically, the Black Africans have got no bargaining power in London as they are under-represented and thus repressed by the white government that practices structured racial discrimination. This further makes it impossible for the Black Africans to be considered as a people in London. 

On the other hand, social impact of unemployment and unskilled jobs cannot be ignored and thus it is important to bring it into view. Isolation, stigmatization and low self esteem come as a result of unemployment and unskilled jobs. Being isolated in poor conditions makes it even harder to adapt good behaviors and as such criminal acts have been associated with the Black Africans in London. Factoring in the point that London is one of the most expensive cities in the world to live in, being unemployed in such an area can prove more detrimental than anticipated.

Being socially stigmatized is another point that has more effects since it can kill the morale of one living a happy life. As a consequence, depression, stress and other related effects develop and others end up killing themselves owing to their knowledge that they are like a misfit in the larger society. Some kind of rage and aggression develop within the confines of isolation that the Black Africans are subjected to and as a result it may lead to antisocial behavior jeopardizing the lives of many (Walsh, Stephens& Moore, 2000).

From another point of view, psychological effects of unemployment and unskilled jobs done by Black Africans are responsible for their poor mental well being. So to speak, the poor mental well being is attributed to the issues of anxiety and stress that come as a result of being unemployed. For a family head whose wages are low or he is unemployed, he can be stressed due to the fact that as a family head he is unable to provide for his family. Along with this, family break ups can be realized as others engage in domestic violence as a responsive reaction to their inability to provide for the families (Hall, 2007). Others end up stressed to an extent of being depressed a disorder that is costly to treat and as such, the psychological disturbance of the Black Africans lands them to mental incapacitation and thus high demand of mental health services.

From a broader point of view, the interviews that were conducted in this case involved a 46 year old black African male living in London among others. As such, the question of the experiences of the Black Africans was addressed in the interviews. First and foremost, the Black account of the interviewees in most part of it resembled in that they almost gave the same story regarding their experience with unemployment. Being in London as provided by the interviews is one of the hardest experiences that a Black African can have in London.

London is one of the most expensive cities in the world and in this connection, ethnic minority who live in the inner urban areas of the city working in the manufacturing and service industry live in the inner cities whereby they are concentrated due to the fact that they are unable to assimilate in the large British society in London due to discrimination. From the interviews, it has been provided that unemployment of the Black Africans and the unskilled jobs has been an issue that has affected them since time in memorial.

Arguably, the interviews point out that there has been high rates of unemployment with the interviewees being direct victims of the same. From their point of view, they have in most part been affected by the unemployment and as a result they live in great poverty and isolation which has hindered them from advancing. The interviews further points out to psychological effects that unemployment has had on their lives. In one incident, one of the interviewees confessed that he has had to suffer from stress owing to the fact that he was unemployed. He also stated that though he was qualified, he was not given many of the opportunities to succeed as an applicant.

To the British labor Market, discrimination seems to be deep rooted and thus many of the Black Africans wishing to work in London have got no access. Some employers attribute their turning down of the application to failure of the Black African to meet the qualifying requirements. However, according to the interviews conducted most of the applications were turned down and white applicants taken in their place. This has so much played as a discouraging factor to the willing Black Africans to work in the white collar jobs.

Notably, the interviews exposed the fact that most high ranked occupational positions are preserved for the whites who cannot stand to see themselves being led by a black. In this sense, the blacks have suffered socially, mentally and economically making them to be the most vulnerable to sickness and poverty as they have limited income to access health care services and to survive in the midst of economical crisis (Thornley, 1992).

In accordance to the interviews, the Blacks complained of only being confined to unskilled jobs even when they were qualified. They attribute this treatment to historical background and how the whites in the past treated the blacks as servants and slaves for cheap labor. Interestingly enough, the Black Africans even after the equal opportunity employment act being enacted, they continue to be unemployed with a many of them engaging in still unskilled jobs.  Accordingly, the interviews provided the information that even when one is employed in London; it is not guaranteed that one will survive in the position of being employed as a Black African.

In connection to this point, one may be send out of the job when a white comes looking for the same job. This is a very discouraging factor and as such it may limit and it has actually limited the Black Africans from seeking for Jobs in the British labor market. Another interview attributed the unemployment to racism at the same time pointing out that by now there are changes that have taken place and black Africans and whites have equal chances of getting employed.

However, silently racism is creeping in to eliminate the employment of the Black Africans. This has been so far implemented by means of legislative changes that make it a mandatory to have the right papers to get a job and the right to live in London. Likewise, security jobs previously meant for Africans are being attained by one going through training and then one has to be vetted of which one may end up being rejected.  It has also not been easy even with the right papers to get into the top level position of employment and even today, the Black Africans still suffer from unemployment being confined to do the still odd jobs they used to do time in memorial.

Others have pointed out that they had to give up seeking for jobs for their psychological well being. Thoughts of going back to the homeland by Black Africans have grown as a result of the unemployment and being confined to odd jobs that do not pay (Knight, 1986). Therefore, from the interviews it is evident that unemployment has been prevalent in the past leading to poverty, psychological instability and isolation of the Black Africans in the larger community in London. Additionally, there have been some notable changes that have been realized as employment opportunities have been made available though not absolutely to the Black Africans. Although there are changes that have occurred in the labor market, advise from the Black Africans interviewed is that any one who has something to do in the homeland should not try to immigrate to London as chances of being employed are minimal and even close to zero. By so doing, they will avoid chances of being discouraged. From a general point of view, the impact of unemployment and low paid jobs to the black Africans in London has far much effect than it is thought to be.  

Summary

London is one of the most expensive cities to live in the world. It is one of the most uneven cities with a lot of inequalities. Geographical distribution of the population is marked by distribution of wealth as well. Most of the Black Africans live in inner London of which it is the tendency of most ethnic minorities to concentrate in the large cities. Previously, there was an influx of immigrants to the larger city of London owing to the shortage of labor in the semi skilled and unskilled labor that attracted majority to the job opportunities in the manufacturing and service industry that required cheap labor.

As a matter of fact, most Africans ended up concentrating in the inner cities and owing to the fact that they did low paid jobs, their standard of living remained at the same level. This meant them to remain in social rented housing. Similarly, they were described by poverty, isolation, stigmatization and a growing wave of antisocial populace with high rates of crimes. Poor mental wellbeing or psychological trauma of the Black Africans due to unemployment send many to hospitals of which they could not afford due to low income along with depression disorder among them (Gordon & Regional Science Association. British Section. Conference, 1987).

Deaths occurred with many committing suicides as they could not put up with the pressure of paying bills, caring for their loved ones, meeting the basic needs of the family and other needs of life. Bearing in mind that they could not find a job and that some would remain unemployed for the rest of the lives, stressed them up preferring the only option to be death rather than live unemployed only venturing in low paid jobs. Remarkably, the social effects of unemployment have been pointed out to be isolation, stigmatization and low self esteem of the unemployed (Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Home Affairs Committee, 2007).

In respect to this point, the standards of living of the Black Africans in London have been associated with the fact that they have low income owing to the unskilled jobs they do. As well, unemployment has contributed to the concentration of the Black Africans in the inner London whereby standards of living are so low. Economical effects result to poor housing due to limited resources, poor health, and low levels of education and limited job opportunities due to the fact that they are not qualified.

As such, due to poverty and other related factors caused by unemployment and low paid jobs done by the Black Africans, the rate of crime has been on the increase as people seek for any other form of employment that can earn them a living. Needless to say, stress and anxiety along with the other aspects lead to the developing of chronic diseases like heart attack and high blood pressure among others (Morgan & Hawkins, 2006). In connection to this, diseases are so prevalent among the Black Africans owing to inaccessibility of health care services along with the fact that they are limited financially to pay for medication. In fact, the seclusion of the Blacks in London is as a result of discrimination along with unemployment since the view of unemployment by the society leads to marginalization.

Conclusion

In summation, unemployment and unskilled jobs have had adverse impacts to the Black Africans living in the inner London. In this context, social impact that unemployment and low-paid jobs play in the lives and experiences of Black Africans immigrants in the UK and especially that who reside in London, has almost gone unnoticed. It is only through the realization of an existence of a problem that a solution can be realized. So to articulate, the solution for the unemployment and low paid jobs that the Black Africans do in London of which it is an expensive city to live would be to expose as well as explore the impact it has had on their lives. Interestingly enough, the research has established that the Impact of unemployment and low paid jobs has adversely affected the ethnic minority blacks in London who remain unemployed doing unskilled jobs and unable to assimilate to the larger British society due to racism.

Although it has been said that discrimination is being fought, unemployment and unskilled black work force is an evident of impact it has had. The prevalence of chronic diseases, low levels of education, depression and poor mental well being, isolation, stigmatization and low self esteem limiting performance are the results of unemployment. Domestic violence has been pointed out to be prevalent among the Black Africans as a way of releasing stress when parents are incapacitated to take care of their children and family as whole. At the same time, there have been cases of deaths occurring due to unemployment translating to stress and when the affected are unable to manage it they resolve to commit suicide.

This has however gone unnoticed and also unattended. From the interviews conducted, it is evident that unemployment and low paid jobs done by Black Africans has had psychological effects with greater effects leading to death among others (Oakland, 2002). This calls for intervention as it has also been noticed from the research that although employment equal opportunity for all has been established, some structured form of racism has been in place leading to unemployment and low paid jobs to the Black Africans living London.

 Pointless to state, the impact of unemployment to the Black Africans has become a moral panic to the world owing to the increased juvenile crime and increased use of drugs as many children born of lone parents who are unemployed or generally those children from unemployed parents or parents doing the unskilled jobs earning them very low income. From a general point of view, the impact of unemployment and low paid jobs for black Africans in London covers social, psychological, and economic spheres of life. Nonetheless, it is not only the Black Africans in the region who are affected by unemployment and unskilled jobs but it has impact in the larger British society and the world as whole. This is because children who never go to school have a larger percentage of them engaging in crime and others due to poverty abuse drugs to alleviate the feeling of the situation. Crime in this case will not affect the blacks alone but the society as whole.

Suggestions for future Recommendations

Having pointed out to the detrimental effects and social impact that unemployment and low-paid jobs play in the lives and experiences of Black Africans immigrants in the UK and especially those who reside in London, it is recommendable that the government intervenes in the well being of the Blacks in London and movements to fight for the rights of employment should be established (Linden, & Rojahn, 1990). It is also important if it may be said for the international law of justice to be implemented and the law of equal employment opportunity be enforced in order to prevent more adverse effects to the society. In the future, more researches should be done in order to establish more effects and associated effects of unemployment and low-paid jobs that has plagued the Black Africans.

 In the same line of thought, there is the danger of the immigrants returning home, a factor that may destroy the good reputation of the city of London. Therefore, the government should intervene in this context and ensure that racism is fought as it is immoral and unethical. At the same time, future research should be conducted in order to provide solid information that can be considered for intervention. Programs should also be established to help the Black Africans to get out of psychological trauma, isolation and economical crisis that has been attributed to unemployment and low paid jobs. At the same time, social work policies should be implemented in order to make available job opportunities to all inclusive of the marginalized in the society with the likes of Black Africans in London. Equal distribution of wealth and property as well as job opportunities should be availed to all races and awareness that all human beings are equal should be created in London city along with the redistribution of resources without marginalizing some areas owing to poverty.

   

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